Skip to main content
Kent Academic Repository

Triangulation Revisited

Smith, Murray (2022) Triangulation Revisited. Projections, 16 (1). pp. 11-24. ISSN 1934-9688. (doi:10.3167/proj.2022.160102) (KAR id:104493)


What is the relationship between detailed critical analysis and the background assumptions made by a given theory of film spectatorship? In this article, I approach this question by looking at Vittorio Gallese and Michele Guerra's The Empathic Screen in the light of the method of triangulation—the coordination and integration of phenomenological, psychological, and neuroscientific evidence, as set out in my Film, Art, and the Third Culture. In particular, I examine Gallese and Guerra's arguments concerning the role of camera movement in prompting immersive, embodied simulation, as well as critiques of these arguments from David Bordwell and Malcolm Turvey. I focus on the special, irreducible role of critical analysis in these arguments. Detailed analysis of film form and style plays an essential role, I argue, in demonstrating the plausibility (or otherwise) of the thesis advanced by Gallese and Guerra. Such analysis is where the rubber of theoretical assumptions meets the road of the material work.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.3167/proj.2022.160102
Uncontrolled keywords: camera movement; critical analysis; embodied simulation; empathy; imagining from the inside; neuroscience; triangulation
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > B Philosophy (General)
B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology > BF41 Psychology and philosophy
B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology > BF575.E55 Empathy
B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BH Aesthetics
P Language and Literature > PN Literature (General) > PN1993 Motion Pictures
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Arts and Humanities > School of Arts
Funders: University of Kent (
Depositing User: Murray Smith
Date Deposited: 05 Jan 2024 15:24 UTC
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2024 13:57 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

University of Kent Author Information

  • Depositors only (login required):

Total unique views for this document in KAR since July 2020. For more details click on the image.