Skip to main content
Kent Academic Repository

Implications of large-scale infrastructure development for biodiversity in Indonesian Borneo

Spencer, Katie, Deere, Nicolas J., Aini, Muhammad, Avriandy, Ryan, Campbell-Smith, Gail, Cheyne, Susan M., Gaveau, David L. A., Humle, Tatyana, Hutabarat, Joseph A., Loken, Brent, and others. (2023) Implications of large-scale infrastructure development for biodiversity in Indonesian Borneo. Science of the Total Environment, 866 . Article Number 161075. ISSN 0048-9697. (doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.161075) (KAR id:99301)

PDF Publisher pdf
Language: English

Download this file
[thumbnail of N. Deere - Biodiversity in Indonesian Borneo - PPDF.pdf]
Request a format suitable for use with assistive technology e.g. a screenreader
PDF Author's Accepted Manuscript
Language: English

Restricted to Repository staff only until 5 January 2025.

Contact us about this Publication
[thumbnail of Revised manuscript with no changes marked.pdf]
Official URL:


Indonesia is embarking on an ambitious relocation of its capital city to Kalimantan, Borneo, bringing with it major urban and road infrastructure. Yet, despite being one of the world's most biologically diverse regions, the potential implications of this development for wildlife have yet to be fully assessed. We explored the potential impacts of the capital relocation, and road expansion and upgrades to critical habitat for medium-large mammals (>1 kg) using camera trap data from 11 forested landscapes. We applied Bayesian multi-species occupancy models to predict community and species-level responses to anthropogenic and environmental factors. We extrapolated spatial patterns of occupancy and species diversity across the forests of Kalimantan and identified “critical habitats” as the top 20th percentile of occupancy and species richness values. We subsequently overlapped these critical habitat layers with infrastructure impact zones to estimate the area that could potentially be affected by direct or secondary impacts. At both the community and species-level, distance to primary roads had the strongest negative influence on habitat-use. Occupancy was also influenced by forest quality and multidimensional poverty conditions in adjacent villages, demonstrating the sensitivity of biodiversity to socio-ecological pressures. Less than 1 % of the critical habitat for the threatened mammal community lay within the direct impact zone (30 km radius) of the capital relocation. However, approximately 16 % was located within 200 km and could potentially be affected by uncontrolled secondary impacts such as urban sprawl and associated regional development. The often-overlooked secondary implications of upgrading existing roads could also intersect a large amount of critical habitat for lowland species. Mitigating far-reaching secondary impacts of infrastructure development should be fully incorporated into environmental impact assessments. This will provide Indonesia with an opportunity to set an example of sustainable infrastructure development in the tropics.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.161075
Additional information: For the purpose of open access, the author(s) has applied a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence to any Author Accepted Manuscript version arising.
Uncontrolled keywords: Kalimantan, Road expansion, Nusantara, Occupancy modelling, Camera traps, Mammal ecology
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH541 Ecology
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH75 Conservation (Biology)
Q Science > QL Zoology
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Human and Social Sciences > School of Anthropology and Conservation > DICE (Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology)
Funders: Leverhulme Trust (
Natural Environment Research Council (
Chester Zoo (
Depositing User: Matthew Struebig
Date Deposited: 23 Dec 2022 11:46 UTC
Last Modified: 12 Dec 2023 12:28 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

University of Kent Author Information

Spencer, Katie.

Creator's ORCID:
CReDIT Contributor Roles:

Deere, Nicolas J..

Creator's ORCID:
CReDIT Contributor Roles:

Humle, Tatyana.

Creator's ORCID:
CReDIT Contributor Roles:

Morgans, Courtney L..

Creator's ORCID:
CReDIT Contributor Roles:

Struebig, Matthew J..

Creator's ORCID:
CReDIT Contributor Roles:
  • Depositors only (login required):

Total unique views for this document in KAR since July 2020. For more details click on the image.