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Coercive diplomacy : the Nkomati accord between Mozambique and South Africa

Al-Khaledi, Murdhi Awad Nassar (1990) Coercive diplomacy : the Nkomati accord between Mozambique and South Africa. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) thesis, University of Kent. (doi:10.22024/UniKent/01.02.85955) (KAR id:85955)

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The independence gained by Angola and by Mozambique in 1974 and by Zimbabwe in 1980 caused a 'security vacuum' for the Republic of South Africa, since it had lost its buffer zone. Accompanying these events, there was an upsurge in guerrilla activities led by the ANC, PAC and SWAPO with the support of the FLS. In response to these developments, South Africa implemented a strategy of coercion designed to deal with any threat to its internal security and maintain its external influence as a regional power. In the 1980's, therefore, the region has witnessed an escalating pattern of coercion, aggression and destabilisation by Pretoria, aimed against the independent Southern African countries. These policies have had a devastating effect on the stability of the region as a whole, as well as on the economic, political, military and the like developments of the FLS-SADCC countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the nature of this coercive diplomacy exercised by the South African government in Southern Africa. The best example of South Africa's strategy of coercion is the signing of the Nkomati Accord in 1984 with Mozambique. The reasons behind Mozambique's signing of the Accord are examined in detail and the reactions of the FLS are presented and analysed. These reactions are drawn from interviews conducted by the researcher in Southern Africa in 1988. They deal with the implication of the signing of the Accord for the solidarity of the FLS and their support of the liberation movements.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctor of Philosophy (PhD))
DOI/Identification number: 10.22024/UniKent/01.02.85955
Additional information: This thesis has been digitised by EThOS, the British Library digitisation service, for purposes of preservation and dissemination. It was uploaded to KAR on 09 February 2021 in order to hold its content and record within University of Kent systems. It is available Open Access using a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-commercial, No Derivatives ( licence so that the thesis and its author, can benefit from opportunities for increased readership and citation. This was done in line with University of Kent policies ( If you feel that your rights are compromised by open access to this thesis, or if you would like more information about its availability, please contact us at and we will seriously consider your claim under the terms of our Take-Down Policy (
Uncontrolled keywords: Politics; Southern Africa
Subjects: J Political Science
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Human and Social Sciences > School of Politics and International Relations
SWORD Depositor: SWORD Copy
Depositing User: SWORD Copy
Date Deposited: 29 Oct 2019 16:22 UTC
Last Modified: 19 May 2022 09:12 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
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