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The development and validation of a teacher-reported low-level classroom disruption scale (LLCD-S)

Cogswell, Suzanne, Carr, Amanda, Abbott, Nicola, Monks, Claire P. (2020) The development and validation of a teacher-reported low-level classroom disruption scale (LLCD-S). Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, . ISSN 1363-2752. (doi:10.1080/13632752.2020.1816651) (KAR id:83807)


Low-level classroom disruption (LLCD) is characterised by pupils swinging on chairs, whispering or fidgeting in class. This paper provides initial data on the development and validation of the teacher-rated Low-Level Classroom Disruption Scale (LLCD-S), with two samples of primary school pupils. Exploratory factor analysis in Study 1 (N= 120) revealed one factor accounting for 61% of the variance; supported by confirmatory factor analysis in Study 2 (N= 274), with one factor accounting for 63% of the variance. Both studies reported high Cronbach’s alpha values of.82 and.93 respectively. The evidence supports LLCD being a unidimensional construct, measured by the eight item LLCD-S. Weak convergence validity was found between the LLCD-S and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire’s (SDQ) externalising behaviours: conduct problems and hyperactivity. This preliminary evidence indicates that LLCD-S is a valid and reliable measure of low-level classroom disruption. Further research is needed to test the utility of the LLCD-S across different levels of education, cultures and as a pupil-reported measure.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1080/13632752.2020.1816651
Uncontrolled keywords: Low-level classroom disruption scale (LLCD-S), low-level classroom disruption, teacher-report scale, scale validation, primary school
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
L Education
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Human and Social Sciences > School of Psychology
Depositing User: Suzanne Cogswell
Date Deposited: 29 Oct 2020 09:57 UTC
Last Modified: 09 Dec 2022 03:33 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

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