Micro-evolutionary diversification among Indian Ocean parrots: temporal and spatial changes in phylogenetic diversity as a consequence of extinction and invasion

Jackson, H and Jones, C G and Agapow, P-M and Tatayah, V and Groombridge, Jim J. (2015) Micro-evolutionary diversification among Indian Ocean parrots: temporal and spatial changes in phylogenetic diversity as a consequence of extinction and invasion. Ibis, 157 (3). pp. 496-510. ISSN 0019-1019. (doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/ibi.12275) (Full text available)

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Abstract

Almost 90% of global bird extinctions have occurred on islands. The loss of endemic spe- cies from island systems can dramatically alter evolutionary trajectories of insular species biodiversity, resulting in a loss of evolutionary diversity important for species adaptation to changing environments. The Western Indian Ocean islands have been the scene of evolution for a large number of endemic parrots. Since their discovery in the 16th cen- tury, many of these parrots have become extinct or have declined in numbers. Alongside the extinction of species, a number of the Indian Ocean islands have experienced coloni- zation by highly invasive parrots, such as the Ring-necked Parakeet Psittacula krameri. Such extinctions and invasions can, on an evolutionary timescale, drive changes in spe- cies composition, genetic diversity and turnover in phylogenetic diversity, all of which can have important impacts on species potential for adaptation to changing environmen- tal and climatic conditions. Using mtDNA cytochrome b data, we resolve the taxonomic placement of three extinct Indian Ocean parrots: the Rodrigues Psittacula exsul, Sey- chelles Psittacula wardi and Reunion Parakeets Psittacula eques. This case study quantifies how the extinction of these species has resulted in lost historical endemic phylogenetic diversity and reduced levels of species richness, and illustrates how it is being replaced by non-endemic invasive forms such as the Ring-necked Parakeet. Finally, we use our phylogenetic framework to identify and recommend a number of phylogenetically appro- priate ecological replacements for the extinct parrots. Such replacements may be intro- duced once invasive forms have been cleared, to rejuvenate ecosystem function and restore lost phylogenetic diversity.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled keywords: ecological replacements, evolution, invasive alien species, Psittacula.
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH426 Genetics
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH541 Ecology
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH75 Conservation (Biology)
Divisions: Faculties > Social Sciences > School of Anthropology and Conservation > DICE (Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology)
Depositing User: Hazel Jackson
Date Deposited: 30 Sep 2015 11:31 UTC
Last Modified: 01 Jan 2017 00:00 UTC
Resource URI: https://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/50688 (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
Jackson, H: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9573-2025
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