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Overview on the use of molecular markers to characterize genetic diversity in chickens

Weigend, Steffen, Romanov, Michael N, Ben-Ari, G, Hillel, J. (2004) Overview on the use of molecular markers to characterize genetic diversity in chickens. In: XXII World's Poultry Congress: Book of Abstracts. . p. 192. World's Poultry Science Association, WPSA — Turkish Branch, Istanbul, Turkey (Access to this publication is currently restricted. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided) (KAR id:46537)

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Abstract: Decisions on conservation of genetic resources have to rely upon a range of information including the degree of endangerment, adaptation to a specific environment, possession of specific traits, and breed cultural or historical value. Suggesting that the more distant a breed or population is from others the more likely it might carry unique genetic features, the assessment of genetic distances by means of molecular marker information may provide useful information for initial evaluation of chicken genetic resources. Various types of molecular techniques and markers such as RFLP, endogenous avian virus loci, DFP, RAPD, AFLP and mtDNA markers have been employed to study genetic diversity in chickens. The most extensively used class of highly polymorphic molecular markers are the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci, in particular microsatellites, that show extensive allelic differences in length based mainly on variation in the number of repeats and partly on polymorphism of adjacent regions. Genetic diversity measures using VNTR markers yield reliable information for the study of genetic relationships between chicken populations. In an European project on chicken biodiversity (AVIANDIV) a large number of diverse chicken breeds were typed at 22 microsatellite loci using population DNA pools. Results showed that jungle fowl populations and traditional unselected breeds are widely heterogeneous populations that may include a large portion of the genetic diversity of the tested breeds. Within commercial chickens, broiler lines were slightly more polymorphic than layers. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a new and very promising molecular marker system. It offers assessment of genetic diversity in farm animal species in a different way by investigating the mode and extent of sequence changes in both coding and non-coding regions of the genome. SNPs are either analysed as single loci or in combination as haplotypes. They have a lower mutation rate than microsatellites and can be quite stable over evolutionary time scale. In chicken biodiversity studies, high bootstrap values of phylogenetic trees and correct affiliation of individuals to their original populations were found with SNPs. On the other hand, due to higher mutation rate and degree of polymorphism microsatellites may be better suited than SNPs for differentiating between more recently separated populations. Further research is necessary to evaluate the specific suitability and genetic features of these molecular markers for assessing genetic diversity and phylogenetic issues in chickens.

Item Type: Conference or workshop item (Paper)
Additional information: In addition to the printed proceedings, the item was published as a full text electronic version, i.e., on the CD-ROM that was accompanied the proceedings book (CD in pocket): XXII World's Poultry Congress & Exhibition: Participant List & Full Text CD
Uncontrolled keywords: chicken, genetic diversity, genetic resources, molecular markers
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH426 Genetics
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH75 Conservation (Biology)
Q Science > QP Physiology (Living systems) > QP506 Molecular biology
S Agriculture > SF Animal culture
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Natural Sciences > Biosciences
Signature Themes: Food Systems, Natural Resources and Environment
Depositing User: Mike Romanov
Date Deposited: 06 Jan 2015 17:03 UTC
Last Modified: 11 Jan 2024 04:05 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

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