Skip to main content

Score following: An artificially intelligent musical accompanist

Jordanous, Anna (2007) Score following: An artificially intelligent musical accompanist. Master of Science (MSc) thesis, University of Edinburgh, UK..


Score Following is the process by which a musician can be tracked through their performance of a piece, for the purpose of accompanying the musician with the appropriate notes. This tracking is done by following the progress of the musician through the score (written music) of the piece, using observations of the notes they are playing. Artificially intelligent musical accompaniment is where a human musician is accompanied by a computer musician. The computer musician is able to produce musical accompaniment that relates musically to the human performance. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are a stochastic modelling tool that can be used to represent real-world systems in a variety of domains. This project discusses how HMMs can be used in the domain of Score Following and describes the construction and evaluation of a score following system that uses HMMs to implement score following. It explores the hypothesis that using an HMM to represent a musical score is an efficient and practical way to implement score following, and that in particular this method is suitable for providing real-time accompaniment to a human performer. The score followers developed during this project are tested and compared against other score following systems and against human musicians. The resulting performances support the project hypothesis to a large extent.

Item Type: Thesis (Master of Science (MSc))
Subjects: M Music and Books on Music > M Music
Q Science > Q Science (General) > Q335 Artificial intelligence
Q Science > QA Mathematics (inc Computing science) > QA 75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Q Science > QA Mathematics (inc Computing science) > QA 76 Software, computer programming, > QA76.76 Computer software > QA76.76.I59 Interactive media, hypermedia
Q Science > QA Mathematics (inc Computing science) > QA 76 Software, computer programming, > QA76.9.H85 Human computer interaction
Divisions: Faculties > Sciences > School of Computing > Computational Intelligence Group
Depositing User: Anna Jordanous
Date Deposited: 20 Aug 2014 09:49 UTC
Last Modified: 29 May 2019 12:55 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
Jordanous, Anna:
  • Depositors only (login required):


Downloads per month over past year