Skip to main content

What do the TOSCA guilt and shame scales really measure: Affect or action?

Giner-Sorolla, Roger, Piazza, Jared, Espinosa, Pablo (2011) What do the TOSCA guilt and shame scales really measure: Affect or action? Personality and Individual Differences, 51 (4). pp. 445-450. ISSN 0191-8869. (doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.04.010) (KAR id:32969)

Language: English
Download (158kB) Preview
[thumbnail of Guilt Shame PAID 2011 author final.pdf]
This file may not be suitable for users of assistive technology.
Request an accessible format
Official URL:


Psychologists have long used the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA) as an instrument for empirically distinguishing between trait emotions of guilt and shame. Recent assessments of the internal structure of the TOSCA guilt scale suggest that it may not measure the experience of guilt, but rather motivation to make amends for personal wrongdoing. In contrast, TOSCA shame may better assess the tendency to experience negative self-conscious affect. Previous research did not take into account that TOSCA guilt theoretically should only predict emotions in a situation of wrongdoing; we put this idea to the test in two studies. Experimental, but not control, participants received believable feedback that they had shown involuntary prejudice towards a member of a minority group. In both studies TOSCA guilt predicted reparative action after feedback was given, including expressing non-prejudiced views and recommending financial compensation to the minority group. However, TOSCA guilt had no relationship with feelings of guilt or shame after expressing prejudice. In contrast, TOSCA shame was a better predictor of feelings of guilt, shame and other self-critical emotions, but did not predict compensatory action. These findings suggest motivation rather than emotion as a mechanism behind past findings involving TOSCA guilt.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.04.010
Uncontrolled keywords: guilt, shame, TOSCA, measurement, action, prejudice, self-control
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Human and Social Sciences > School of Psychology
Depositing User: Roger Giner-Sorolla
Date Deposited: 14 Jan 2013 13:56 UTC
Last Modified: 16 Nov 2021 10:10 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
Giner-Sorolla, Roger:
  • Depositors only (login required):


Downloads per month over past year