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HbA1c Variability and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Prostate Cancer Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy

Chan, Jeffrey Shi Kai, Lee, Yan Hiu Athena, Liu, Kang, Hui, Jeremy Man Ho, Dee, Edward Christopher, Ng, Kenrick, Satti, Danish Iltaf, Liu, Tong, Tse, Gary, Ng, Chi Fai and others. (2023) HbA1c Variability and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Prostate Cancer Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy. European Urology Open Science, 47 . pp. 3-11. ISSN 2666-1683. (doi:10.1016/j.euros.2022.11.002) (KAR id:99572)


Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) worsens glycaemic control and cardiovascular outcomes. The prognostic value of visit-to-visit HbA1c variability (VVHV) has been unexplored in prostate cancer (PCa) patients receiving ADT.

Objective: To explore the effect of ADT on VVHV and the cardiovascular prognostic value of VVHV.

Design, setting, and participants: PCa patients receiving ADT in Hong Kong between January 1, 1993 and March 31, 2021 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Those with fewer than three HbA1c results available within 3 yr after ADT initiation, <6 mo of ADT, missing baseline HbA1c, prior diagnosis of any component of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), and MACEs occurring within 3 yr were excluded. Patients were followed up until September 31, 2021.

Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The outcome was MACEs (composite of heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality). VVHV was calculated from HbA1c levels within 3 yr after and, separately where available, before ADT initiation using coefficient of variation (CV; standard deviation [SD] divided by mean) and average real variability (ARV; average difference between consecutive measurements).

Results and limitations: Altogether, 1065 patients were analysed (median age 74.4 yr old [interquartile range 68.3–79.5 yr]). In 709 patients with VVHV available before and after ADT initiation, VVHV increased after ADT initiation (p < 0.001), with 473 (66.2%) and 474 (66.9%) having increased CV and ARV, respectively. Over a median follow-up of 4.3 yr (2.8–6.7 yr), higher VVHV was associated with a higher risk of MACEs (adjusted hazard ratio [per SD] for CV 1.21 [95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.43], p = 0.029; ARV 1.25 [1.06, 1.48], p = 0.008). Limitations included residual confounding and selection bias.

Conclusions: In PCa patients receiving ADT, VVHV increased after ADT initiation. Higher VVHV was associated with an increased risk of MACEs.

Patient summary: In prostate cancer patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), glycaemic control is less stable after initiating ADT, which was associated with an increased cardiovascular risk.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1016/j.euros.2022.11.002
Uncontrolled keywords: Major adverse cardiovascular events, Cardio-oncology, Androgen deprivation therapy, Prostate cancer
Subjects: R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Natural Sciences > Kent and Medway Medical School
SWORD Depositor: JISC Publications Router
Depositing User: JISC Publications Router
Date Deposited: 20 Jan 2023 15:14 UTC
Last Modified: 23 Jan 2023 10:05 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

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