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Systematic Review of Intelligent Algorithms in Gait Analysis and Prediction for Lower Limb Robotic Systems

Kolaghassi, Rania, Al-Hares, Mohamad Kenan, Sirlantzis, Konstantinos (2021) Systematic Review of Intelligent Algorithms in Gait Analysis and Prediction for Lower Limb Robotic Systems. IEEE Access, 9 . pp. 113788-113812. ISSN 2169-3536. (doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3104464) (KAR id:97947)


The rate of development of robotic technologies has been meteoric, as a result of compounded advancements in hardware and software. Amongst these robotic technologies are active exoskeletons and orthoses, used in the assistive and rehabilitative fields. Artificial intelligence techniques are increasingly being utilised in gait analysis and prediction. This review paper systematically explores the current use of intelligent algorithms in gait analysis for robotic control, specifically the control of active lower limb exoskeletons and orthoses. Two databases, IEEE and Scopus, were screened for papers published between 1989 to May 2020. 41 papers met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. 66.7% of the identified studies used classification models for the classification of gait phases and locomotion modes. Meanwhile, 33.3% implemented regression models for the estimation/prediction of kinematic parameters such as joint angles and trajectories, and kinetic parameters such as moments and torques. Deep learning algorithms have been deployed in ∼15% of the machine learning implementations. Other methodological parameters were reviewed, such as the sensor selection and the sample sizes used for training the models.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3104464
Projects: MOTION
Uncontrolled keywords: gait analysis, exoskeletons, orthoses, machine learning, deep learning, wearable robotics, gait phases, locomotion, moments, joint angles
Subjects: T Technology
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Computing, Engineering and Mathematical Sciences > School of Engineering and Digital Arts
Depositing User: Rania Kolaghassi
Date Deposited: 13 Nov 2022 13:13 UTC
Last Modified: 14 Nov 2022 15:39 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

University of Kent Author Information

Kolaghassi, Rania.

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Al-Hares, Mohamad Kenan.

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Sirlantzis, Konstantinos.

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