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VStore: Feasibility and acceptability of a novel virtual reality functional cognition task

Porffy, Lilla A., Mehta, Mitul A., Mouchlianitis, Elias, Shergill, Sukhi S. (2022) VStore: Feasibility and acceptability of a novel virtual reality functional cognition task. Frontiers in Virtual Reality, 3 . Article Number 875197. ISSN 2673-4192. (doi:10.3389/frvir.2022.875197) (KAR id:97733)


Virtual reality (VR) is becoming an increasingly popular tool in neuroscience and mental health research. In recent years, efforts have been made to virtualise neuropsychological testing with the intent to increase the ecological validity of cognitive assessments. However, there are some limitations in the current literature—feasibility and acceptability data are often not reported or available and sample sizes have generally been small. In this study, we describe the development and establish the feasibility and acceptability of use of a novel functional cognition VR shopping task, VStore, in three separate samples with data from a total of 210 participants. Two samples include healthy volunteers between the ages of 20 and 79 and there is one clinical cohort of patients with psychosis. Main VStore outcomes were: 1) verbal recall of 12 grocery items, 2) time to collect items, 3) time to select items on a self-checkout machine, 4) time to make the payment, 5) time to order hot drink, and 6) total time. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed by the completion rate across the three studies. VR induced adverse effects were assessed preand post-VStore administration to establish tolerability. Finally, as an exploratory objective, VStore’s ability to differentiate between younger and older age groups, and between patients and matched healthy controls was examined as preliminary indication of its potential utility. The overall completion rate across the studies was exceptionally high (99.95%), and VStore did not induce any adverse effects. Additionally, there was a clear difference in VStore performance metrics between both the patients and controls and between younger and older age groups, suggesting potential clinical utility of this VR assessment. These findings demonstrate that VStore is a promising neuropsychological tool that is well-tolerated and feasible to administer to both healthy and clinical populations. We discuss the implications for future research involving neuropsychological testing based on our experience and the contemporary literature.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.3389/frvir.2022.875197
Additional information: For the purpose of open access, the author has applied a CC BY public copyright licence (where permitted by UKRI, an Open Government Licence or CC BY ND public copyright licence may be used instead) to any Author Accepted Manuscript version arising
Uncontrolled keywords: virtual reality, virtual reality assessment, neuropsychological testing, cognition, functional cognition, cognitive assessment, ageing, psychosis
Subjects: R Medicine
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Natural Sciences > Kent and Medway Medical School
Funders: NIHR Maudsley Dementia Biomedical Research Unit (
Depositing User: Sukhwinder Singh Shergill
Date Deposited: 02 Nov 2022 12:36 UTC
Last Modified: 12 Dec 2023 14:10 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

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