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The effect of training intensity on implicit learning rates in schizophrenia

Orlov, Natasza D., Sanderson, Jessica, Muqtadir, Syed Ali, Kalpakidou, Anastasia K., Michalopoulou, Panayiota G., Lu, Jie, Shergill, Sukhi S. (2021) The effect of training intensity on implicit learning rates in schizophrenia. Scientific Reports, 11 (1). Article Number 6511. ISSN 2045-2322. (doi:10.1038/s41598-021-85686-5) (KAR id:96362)


Cognitive impairments in learning and memory are core symptoms of schizophrenia, associated with reduced self-reported quality of life. The most effective treatment of cognitive impairments is drill and practice cognitive training. Still, to date no study has investigated the effect of varying the frequency of training on cognitive outcomes. Here we utilized a verbal memory based language learning task, tapping into implicit cognitive processes, to investigate the role of training intensity on learning rates in individuals with schizophrenia. Data from 47 participants across two studies was utilized, one with a daily training regimen over 5Â days and the other with a more intensive schedule of 5 sessions delivered over 2Â days. The primary outcome measure was the change in implicit learning performance across five sessions, quantified with the Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC). Participants in the daily training group showed improved performance compared to the intensive group only at session 4. This is the first study to show that implicit learning rates are influenced by training intensity, with daily sessions outperforming a more intensive regimen; a period of consolidation overnight may be necessary to optimize cognitive training for individuals with schizophrenia.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1038/s41598-021-85686-5
Subjects: R Medicine
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Natural Sciences > Kent and Medway Medical School
Funders: National Institute for Health Research (
South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (
King's College London (
Depositing User: Rachael Heller
Date Deposited: 27 Sep 2022 13:19 UTC
Last Modified: 04 Mar 2024 18:14 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

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