Skip to main content
Kent Academic Repository

Fractional Integration Versus Structural Change: Testing the Convergence of CO2 Emissions

Barassi, Marco R., Spagnolo, Nicola, Zhao, Y. (2018) Fractional Integration Versus Structural Change: Testing the Convergence of CO2 Emissions. Environmental and Resource Economics, 71 (4). pp. 923-968. ISSN 0924-6460. (doi:10.1007/s10640-017-0190-z) (KAR id:95051)


This paper assesses the stochastic convergence of relative CO2 emissions within 28 OECD countries over the period 1950–2013. Using the local Whittle estimator and some of its variants we assess whether relative per capita CO2 emissions are long memory processes which, although highly persistent, may revert to their mean/trend in the long run thereby indicating evidence of stochastic convergence. Furthermore, we test whether (possibly) slow convergence or the complete lack of it may be the result of structural changes to the deterministics of each of the relative per-capita emissions series by means of the tests of Berkes et al. (Ann Stat 1140–1165, 2006) and Mayoral (Oxford Bull Econ Stat 74(2):278–305, 2012). Our results show relatively weak support for stochastic convergence of CO2 emissions, indicating that only between 30 and 40% of the countries converge to the OECD average in a stochastic sense. This weak evidence disappears if we enlarge the sample to include 4 out of the 5 BRICS, indicating that our results are not robust to the inclusion of countries which are experiencing rates of growth which are far larger than those of the OECD members. Our results also decisively indicate that a slow or lack of convergence is not the results of a structural break in the relative CO2 emissions series.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1007/s10640-017-0190-z
Uncontrolled keywords: Fractional integration; Local Whittle estimator; Structural change
Subjects: H Social Sciences
H Social Sciences > HG Finance
Divisions: Divisions > Kent Business School - Division > Department of Accounting and Finance
Depositing User: Yuqian Zhao
Date Deposited: 17 May 2022 10:10 UTC
Last Modified: 18 May 2022 11:45 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

University of Kent Author Information

  • Depositors only (login required):

Total unique views for this document in KAR since July 2020. For more details click on the image.