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Housing Standards of the English Working-Classes, 1837-1914

Jackson, Kenneth (1977) Housing Standards of the English Working-Classes, 1837-1914. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) thesis, University of Kent. (doi:10.22024/UniKent/01.02.94438) (KAR id:94438)

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This thesis deals with the question of changes in the standards of working-class housing over the period from 1837 to 1914. As many, if not most, of the popu­lation until the late nineteenth century had experience of living in rural areas, it is by such standards that urban conditions are judged. Using a nineteenth-century basis of reference makes it easier to understand the problems which confronted those involved in bringing about changes at the time, whereas the use of a more modern benchmark only makes such understanding more difficult.

The first part of the thesis deals with the analy­tical structure, involving an examination of both demand and supply factors, and the way in which they could have been expected to have affected the situation. Out of this first part comes the expectation that the explana­tions of changing standards differ as between the rural and the urban context. In rural areas, after the eigh­teen thirties, depopulation seems to assume a dominant role in explaining the possible improvements in housing conditions, through its effect on the demand side. In urban areas, by contrast, demand increased so rapidly that supply was liable to fall behind it in some periods, and overall provide the basis for only a slow and gradual improvement.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctor of Philosophy (PhD))
Thesis advisor: Barker, Theo
Thesis advisor: Drake, Michael
Thesis advisor: Armstrong, Alan
DOI/Identification number: 10.22024/UniKent/01.02.94438
Additional information: This thesis has been digitised by EThOS, the British Library digitisation service, for purposes of preservation and dissemination. It was uploaded to KAR on 25 April 2022 in order to hold its content and record within University of Kent systems. It is available Open Access using a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-commercial, No Derivatives ( licence so that the thesis and its author, can benefit from opportunities for increased readership and citation. This was done in line with University of Kent policies ( If you feel that your rights are compromised by open access to this thesis, or if you would like more information about its availability, please contact us at and we will seriously consider your claim under the terms of our Take-Down Policy (
Subjects: D History General and Old World
H Social Sciences
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Human and Social Sciences > School of Economics
SWORD Depositor: SWORD Copy
Depositing User: SWORD Copy
Date Deposited: 14 Jul 2022 14:40 UTC
Last Modified: 18 Jul 2022 13:05 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

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