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Nonlinear effects in OFDM signal transmission over radio over fibre links

Assimakopoulos, Philippos (2012) Nonlinear effects in OFDM signal transmission over radio over fibre links. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) thesis, University of Kent. (doi:10.22024/UniKent/01.02.94180) (KAR id:94180)

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The dynamic range limitations that arise from nonlinearity in low-cost and low complexity directly modulated radio over fibre (RoF) links are examined. Statistical non linear models are presented and applied to the case of a RoF link with a low biased laser diode. The effects of distortion on the Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) performance of Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) signals with different numbers of subcarriers and the connection to the Peak-ta-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the signals are investigated. Statistical distributions of the EVM over a large number of transmitted OFDM frames are gained from experimental measurements and analyses of idealized processes. The measurement results show that as the number of subcarriers is reduced the distribution means are not dependent in the expected way on the statistical PAPR of the transmitted OFDM signals. Instead, it is shown that in regions of moderate distortion the median of the EVM is more closely related to the statistical PAPR and to the required back-off for signals with different numbers of subcarriers. Through the employed statistical analysis, the asymptotic convergence of the EVM result to that expected in the idealized case is observed. The results of this analysis also show, how, including the EVM variance in estimations for back-off might be useful, how, in a measurement, the number of transmitted OFDM frames affects the estimated mean EVM. Differing EVM results for subcarriers at the edge and middle of the signal band show that distortion affects the subcarriers at the middle of the band to a stronger degree and that their behaviour is correlated "to the statistical PAPR of the individual signals. Then, a laser model validated against measured performance is designed arid used for simulating the performance of a subcarrier multiplexed 4th generation mobile/wireless RoF transmission system. Predictions indicate that the architecture provides adequate performance in terms of EVM, for different IFFT sizes and modulation levels of up to 256 QAM (at leastL and a combined raw data rate of up to 3.2 Gbps. Based on a 1.5% EVM transmitter requirement with 256 QAM, a system dynamic range of approximately 5.1 dB is predicted. Finally, the use of companding in a directly modulated RaF link, with the aim of reducing the amplification (and isolation) requirements in the remote antenna unit, is demonstrated, quantified through EVM measurements. The resulting improvements in output power are approximately 4.7 dB at an EVM transmitter requirement of 5.6 %, while in terms of the point of onset of distortion-induced EVM increase, the improvement is approximately 7.6 dB.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctor of Philosophy (PhD))
Thesis advisor: Gomes, Nathan J.
DOI/Identification number: 10.22024/UniKent/01.02.94180
Additional information: This thesis has been digitised by EThOS, the British Library digitisation service, for purposes of preservation and dissemination. It was uploaded to KAR on 25 April 2022 in order to hold its content and record within University of Kent systems. It is available Open Access using a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-commercial, No Derivatives ( licence so that the thesis and its author, can benefit from opportunities for increased readership and citation. This was done in line with University of Kent policies ( If you feel that your rights are compromised by open access to this thesis, or if you would like more information about its availability, please contact us at and we will seriously consider your claim under the terms of our Take-Down Policy (
Subjects: T Technology
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Computing, Engineering and Mathematical Sciences > School of Engineering and Digital Arts
SWORD Depositor: SWORD Copy
Depositing User: SWORD Copy
Date Deposited: 27 Sep 2022 11:47 UTC
Last Modified: 27 Sep 2022 11:47 UTC
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