Skip to main content

A Comparison of Online Hate on Reddit and 4chan: A Case Study of the 2020 US Election

Zahrah, Fatima, Nurse, Jason R. C., Goldsmith, Michael (2022) A Comparison of Online Hate on Reddit and 4chan: A Case Study of the 2020 US Election. In: 2022 ACM/SIGAPP Symposium On Applied Computing. . pp. 1788-1791. ACM (doi:10.1145/3477314.3507226) (Access to this publication is currently restricted. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided) (KAR id:92440)

PDF Author's Accepted Manuscript
Language: English

Restricted to Repository staff only
Contact us about this Publication
[thumbnail of SAC2022-online-hate.pdf]
Official URL:


The rapid integration of the Internet into our daily lives has led to many benefits but also to a number of new, wide-spread threats such as online hate, trolling, bullying, and generally aggressive behaviours. While research has traditionally explored online hate, in particular, on one platform, the reality is that such hate is a phenomenon that often makes use of multiple online networks. In this article, we seek to advance the discussion into online hate by harnessing a comparative approach, where we make use of various Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to computationally analyse hateful content from Reddit and 4chan relating to the 2020 US Presidential Elections. Our findings show how content and posting activity can differ depending on the platform being used. Through this, we provide initial comparison into the platform-specific behaviours of online hate, and how different platforms can serve specific purposes. We further provide several avenues for future research utilising a cross-platform approach so as to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the global hate ecosystem.

Item Type: Conference or workshop item (Paper)
DOI/Identification number: 10.1145/3477314.3507226
Uncontrolled keywords: Online hate, Online behavior, Social Network Analysis, Natural Language Processing, Cross-platform analysis, US Elections
Subjects: H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
Q Science > QA Mathematics (inc Computing science)
Q Science > QA Mathematics (inc Computing science) > QA 76 Software, computer programming,
T Technology
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Computing, Engineering and Mathematical Sciences > School of Computing
University-wide institutes > Institute of Cyber Security for Society
Depositing User: Jason Nurse
Date Deposited: 24 Dec 2021 15:53 UTC
Last Modified: 19 Nov 2022 22:11 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
Nurse, Jason R. C.:
  • Depositors only (login required):


Downloads per month over past year