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The SEDIGISM survey: a search for molecular outflows

Yang, A. Y., Urquhart, J.S., Wyrowski, F., Thompson, M.A., König, C., Colombo, D., Menten, K.M., Duarte-Cabral, A., Schuller, F., Csengeri, T., and others. (2021) The SEDIGISM survey: a search for molecular outflows. Astronomy & Astrophysics, . ISSN 0004-6361. (doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202142039) (KAR id:91740)

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Official URL:
https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202142039

Abstract

Context: The formation processes of massive stars are still unclear but a picture is emerging involving accretion disks and molecular outflows in what appears to be a scaled-up version of low-mass star formation. A census of outflow activity towards high-mass star-forming clumps in various evolutionary stages has the potential to shed light on high-mass star formation. Aims: We conducted an outflow survey towards ATLASGAL (APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy) clumps, using SEDIGISM (structure, Excitation, and Dynamics of the Inner Galactic InterStellar Medium) data and aimed to obtain a large sample of clumps exhibiting outflow activity in different evolutionary stages. Methods: We identify the high-velocity wings of the 13CO lines, indicating outflow activity, toward ATLASGAL clumps by (1) extracting the simultaneously observed 13CO (2 – 1) and C18O (2 – 1) spectra from SEDIGISM, and (2) subtracting Gaussian fits to the scaled C18O (core emission) from the 13CO line after considering opacity broadening. Results: We have detected high-velocity gas towards 1192 clumps out of a total sample of 2052 corresponding to an overall detection rate of 58%. Outflow activity has been detected in the earliest (apparently) quiescent clumps (i.e., 70µm weak), to the most evolved H ii region stages i.e., 8µm bright with tracers of massive star formation. The detection rate increases as a function of evolution (quiescent=51%, protostellar=47%, YSO = 57%, UC H ii regions = 76%). Conclusions: Our sample is the largest outflow sample identified so far. The high-detection rate from this large sample is consistent with the results of similar studies reported in the literature and supports the scenario that outflows are a ubiquitous feature of highmass star formation. The lower detection rate in early evolutionary stages may be due to the fact that outflows in the early stages are weak and difficult to detect. We obtain a statistically significant sample of outflow clumps for every evolutionary stage, especially for outflow clumps in the earliest stage (i.e., 70 µm dark). The detections of outflows in the 70 µm-dark clumps suggest that the absence of 70 µm emission is not a robust indicator of starless/pre-stellar cores.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1051/0004-6361/202142039
Uncontrolled keywords: Accretion, accretion disks – Stars: formation – stars: massive–stars: early-type – Submillimeter: ISM – ISM: jets and outflows
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy > QB460 Astrophysics
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Natural Sciences > Physics and Astronomy
Depositing User: James Urquhart
Date Deposited: 26 Nov 2021 16:20 UTC
Last Modified: 13 Jan 2022 15:51 UTC
Resource URI: https://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/91740 (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
Urquhart, J.S.: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1605-8050
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