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The World of Defacers: Looking through the Lens of Their Activities on Twitter

Aslan, Çaǧri Burak, Li, Shujun, Çelebi, Fatih V., Tian, Hao (2020) The World of Defacers: Looking through the Lens of Their Activities on Twitter. IEEE Access, 8 . pp. 204132-204143. E-ISSN 2169-3536. (doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3037015) (KAR id:84855)

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Official URL
https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3037015

Abstract

Many web-based attacks have been studied to understand how web hackers behave, but web site defacement attacks (malicious content manipulations of victim web sites) and defacers’ behaviors have received less attention from researchers. This paper fills this research gap via a computational data-driven analysis of a public database of defacers and defacement attacks and activities of 96 selected defacers who were active on Twitter. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the data: an analysis of a friendship graph with 10,360 nodes, an analysis on how sentiments of defacers related to attack patterns, and a topical modelling based analysis to study what defacers discussed publicly on Twitter. Our analysis revealed a number of key findings: a modular and hierarchical clustering method can help discover interesting sub-communities of defacers; sentiment analysis can help categorize behaviors of defacers in terms of attack patterns; and topic modelling revealed some focus topics (politics, country-specific topics, and technical discussions) among defacers on Twitter and also geographic links of defacers sharing similar topics. We believe that these findings are useful for a better understanding of defacers' behaviors, which could help design and development of better solutions for detecting defacers and even preventing impeding defacement attacks.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3037015
Uncontrolled keywords: Cyber attacks, defacers, defacement, graph-based analysis, hacking, hackers, online social networks, natural language processing, NLP, OSN, sentiment analysis, social media, topic modeling, Twitter
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics (inc Computing science) > QA 75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Q Science > QA Mathematics (inc Computing science) > QA 76 Software, computer programming, > QA76.76 Computer software > QA76.76.I59 Interactive media, hypermedia
T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics. Nuclear engineering > TK5101 Telecommunications > TK5105 Data transmission systems > TK5105.5 Computer networks > TK5105.875.I57 Internet
T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics. Nuclear engineering > TK5101 Telecommunications > TK5105.888 World Wide Web
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Computing, Engineering and Mathematical Sciences > School of Computing
University-wide institutes > Institute of Cyber Security for Society
Depositing User: Shujun Li
Date Deposited: 19 Dec 2020 10:18 UTC
Last Modified: 24 Sep 2021 10:31 UTC
Resource URI: https://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/84855 (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
Aslan, Çaǧri Burak: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0507-3922
Li, Shujun: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5628-7328
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