Skip to main content
Kent Academic Repository

Animal conservation, carbon and sustainability

Leader-Williams, Nigel (2002) Animal conservation, carbon and sustainability. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical & Engineering Sciences., 360 (1797). pp. 1787-1806. ISSN 0261-0523. (doi:10.1098/rsta.2002.1032) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided) (KAR id:8441)

The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided.
Official URL:


International conventions to reduce carbon dioxide levels focus on ecosystems and do not specifically recognize the need to conserve species. However, species are the building blocks of ecosystems, they are more widely understood among the public, and they provide means of capturing market values from ecosystems. Achieving successful conservation globally will require ensuring that the systems under which species and ecosystems are conserved axe more inclusive than statutory protected areas. Equal emphasis needs to be placed on including effective regimes that also encompass private and communal ownership through incentive-based approaches. Nevertheless, if globalized industries such as nature-based tourism or consumptive use are to provide meaningful incentives locally, a key requirement is to reduce leakage of revenue that is earned as a result of conserving species, such that local development concerns are addressed. However, current biodiversity conventions that address these needs are largely aspirational, while globalized industries such as tourism mainly promote their green credentials only through voluntary codes of conduct. Greatly improved linkages are needed between international conservation concerns and ensuring effective solutions to sustainability, which inevitably rest at national and sub-national levels, through systems of rights, tenure, benefits and incentives.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1098/rsta.2002.1032
Additional information: Full text freely available via Official URL below.
Uncontrolled keywords: market values ecotourism leakage local benefits
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Human and Social Sciences > School of Anthropology and Conservation > DICE (Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology)
Depositing User: C.G.W.G. van-de-Benderskum
Date Deposited: 18 Oct 2008 23:58 UTC
Last Modified: 16 Nov 2021 09:46 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

University of Kent Author Information

Leader-Williams, Nigel.

Creator's ORCID:
CReDIT Contributor Roles:
  • Depositors only (login required):

Total unique views for this document in KAR since July 2020. For more details click on the image.