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The evolution of extreme cooperation via shared dysphoric experiences

Whitehouse, Harvey, Jong, Jonathan, Buhrmester, Michael D, Gómez, Ángel, Bastian, Brock, Kavanagh, Christopher M, Newson, Martha, Matthews, Miriam, Lanman, Jonathan A, McKay, Ryan, and others. (2017) The evolution of extreme cooperation via shared dysphoric experiences. Scientific Reports, 7 . Article Number 44292. E-ISSN 2045-2322. (doi:10.1038/srep44292) (KAR id:84191)

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Willingness to lay down one’s life for a group of non-kin, well documented historically and ethnographically, represents an evolutionary puzzle. Building on research in social psychology, we develop a mathematical model showing how conditioning cooperation on previous shared experience can allow individually costly pro-group behavior to evolve. The model generates a series of predictions that we then test empirically in a range of special sample populations (including military veterans, college fraternity/sorority members, football fans, martial arts practitioners, and twins). Our empirical results show that sharing painful experiences produces “identity fusion” – a visceral sense of oneness – which in turn can motivate self-sacrifice, including willingness to fight and die for the group. Practically, our account of how shared dysphoric experiences produce identity fusion helps us better understand such pressing social issues as suicide terrorism, holy wars, sectarian violence, gang-related violence, and other forms of intergroup conflict.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1038/srep44292
Uncontrolled keywords: identity fusion, self-sacrifice, shared dysphoria
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Human and Social Sciences > School of Anthropology and Conservation
Depositing User: Martha Newson
Date Deposited: 15 Nov 2020 15:37 UTC
Last Modified: 16 Feb 2021 14:16 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
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