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Development and external validation of an acute kidney injury risk score for use in the general population

Bell, Samira, James, Matthew T., Farmer, Chris K., Tan, Zhi, de Souza, Nicosha, Witham, Miles D. (2020) Development and external validation of an acute kidney injury risk score for use in the general population. Clinical Kidney Journal, 13 (3). pp. 402-412. ISSN 2048-8505. (doi:10.1093/ckj/sfaa072) (KAR id:83233)

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Background: Improving recognition of patients at increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the community may facilitate earlier detection and implementation of proactive prevention measures that mitigate the impact of AKI. The aim of this study was to develop and externally validate a practical risk score to predict the risk of AKI in either hospital or community settings using routinely collected data. Methods: Routinely collected linked datasets from Tayside, Scotland, were used to develop the risk score and datasets from Kent in the UK and Alberta in Canada were used to externally validate it. AKI was defined using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes serum creatinine–based criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed with occurrence of AKI within 1 year as the dependent variable. Model performance was determined by assessing discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration. Results: The risk score was developed in 273 450 patients from the Tayside region of Scotland and externally validated into two populations: 218 091 individuals from Kent, UK and 1 173 607 individuals from Alberta, Canada. Four variables were independent predictors for AKI by logistic regression: older age, lower baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, diabetes and heart failure. A risk score including these four variables had good predictive performance, with a C-statistic of 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80–0.81] in the development cohort and 0.71 (95% CI 0.70–0.72) in the Kent, UK external validation cohort and 0.76 (95% CI 0.75–0.76) in the Canadian validation cohort.


We have devised and externally validated a simple risk score from routinely collected data that can aid both primary and secondary care physicians in identifying patients at high risk of AKI.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1093/ckj/sfaa072
Uncontrolled keywords: acute kidney, injury, epidemiology, risk score
Subjects: R Medicine
Divisions: Divisions > Division for the Study of Law, Society and Social Justice > School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research > Centre for Health Services Studies
Depositing User: Christopher Farmer
Date Deposited: 02 Oct 2020 15:27 UTC
Last Modified: 29 Oct 2021 14:33 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
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