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Adhesions Assemble!—Autoinhibition as a Major Regulatory Mechanism of Integrin-Mediated Adhesion

Khan, Rejina B., Goult, Benjamin T. (2019) Adhesions Assemble!—Autoinhibition as a Major Regulatory Mechanism of Integrin-Mediated Adhesion. Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, 6 . ISSN 2296-889X. (doi:10.3389/fmolb.2019.00144) (KAR id:80174)

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https://doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2019.00144

Abstract

The advent of cell-cell and cell-extracellular adhesion enabled cells to interact in a coherent manner, forming larger structures and giving rise to the development of tissues, organs and complex multicellular life forms. The development of such organisms required tight regulation of dynamic adhesive structures by signaling pathways that coordinate cell attachment. Integrin-mediated adhesion to the extracellular matrix provides cells with support, survival signals and context-dependent cues that enable cells to run different cellular programs. One mysterious aspect of the process is how hundreds of proteins assemble seemingly spontaneously onto the activated integrin. An emerging concept is that adhesion assembly is regulated by autoinhibition of key proteins, a highly dynamic event that is modulated by a variety of signaling events. By enabling precise control of the activation state of proteins, autoinhibition enables localization of inactive proteins and the formation of pre-complexes. In response to the correct signals, these proteins become active and interact with other proteins, ultimately leading to development of cell-matrix junctions. Autoinhibition of key components of such adhesion complexes—including core components integrin, talin, vinculin, and FAK and important peripheral regulators such as RIAM, Src, and DLC1—leads to a view that the majority of proteins involved in complex assembly might be regulated by intramolecular interactions. Autoinhibition is relieved via multiple different signals including post-translation modification and proteolysis. More recently, mechanical forces have been shown to stabilize and increase the lifetimes of active conformations, identifying autoinhibition as a means of encoding mechanosensitivity. The complexity and scope for nuanced adhesion dynamics facilitated via autoinhibition provides numerous points of regulation. In this review, we discuss what is known about this mode of regulation and how it leads to rapid and tightly controlled assembly and disassembly of cell-matrix adhesion.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.3389/fmolb.2019.00144
Uncontrolled keywords: talin, autoinhibition, integrin, vinculin, riam, cell adhesion, mechanobiology
Divisions: Faculties > Sciences > School of Biosciences
Depositing User: Ben Goult
Date Deposited: 20 Feb 2020 13:50 UTC
Last Modified: 20 Feb 2020 13:50 UTC
Resource URI: https://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/80174 (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
Goult, Benjamin T.: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3438-2807
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