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A River Worshipped, A River Wronged: The History of the St. Mary's River, and its People, from its Formation to Industrialization (15,000 ybp. - present)

Elder, Colin (2019) A River Worshipped, A River Wronged: The History of the St. Mary's River, and its People, from its Formation to Industrialization (15,000 ybp. - present). Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) thesis, University of Kent,. (Access to this publication is currently restricted. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)

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Abstract

For roughly 15,000 years, the area of the St. Mary's River known as Baawitigong (rapids) has been home to the Anishinaabeg, whose identity and lifeways are inextricably linked to the river. The area became an important location for the first Indigenous populations on the Great Lakes, the Copper People, during the Seven Fires migrations, and later became a capital of the modern Niswi-mishkodewin (Three Fires Confederacy). Its location in the centre of the continent also made the St. Mary's River a target of colonial expansion, and thus made Baawitigong (a.k.a. Bawating, Baawitig or Pawating) a strategic location of Indigenous resistance against imperial forces from the seventeenth century until the present. This makes the River an ideal case study with which to understand the impacts of colonization. Colonial populations did not have the same relationship with the river as the Anishinaabeg had; the Colonists did not view the river as a living force, but instead as an impediment to their westward migration and a bank of natural resources to be exploited. Rather than looking to the Natural Baseline of the river to inform their lifeways, the Colonists worked to alter the river for their own purposes. In the early-nineteenth century, legislated land use and industrialization were destructive to the environment and the health of the river, its flora, fauna, and people. By the twentieth century, both the Natural Baseline of the St. Mary's River, and the Anishinaabeg's lifeways, were threatened by these colonial land use patterns. Both would become further threatened into the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, demonstrating the link between Anishinaabeg people and this region. Within this history, is also the story of hope and resistance to these colonial land uses, which may provide a model for North American society, legal structures, and land use patterns moving forward.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctor of Philosophy (PhD))
Thesis advisor: Jones, Karen
Thesis advisor: Marsh, Ben
Uncontrolled keywords: Baawitigong, Bawating, History of the St. Mary’s River, Ecocultural Biography, Upper Great Lakes, Great Lakes, Anishinaabeg, the Great Flood, Original Man and Wolf, the Domestication of Dog, Early-Holocene Development on the Upper Great Lakes, the Great Lakes trade network, Copper People, Seven Fires Prophecies, Seven Fires migration, Niswi-mishkodewin, Three Fires Confederacy, Ojibwa, Odaawa, Boodwaadmii, Wendat, Haudenosaunee, First European Presence, Plagues, Refugee Triangle, Midewiwin, Jesuits, Pageant at Sault Ste. Marie, Sault Ste. Marie Ontario, Sault Sainte Marie Michigan, Great Peace of Montreal 1701, Métis, Obwandiyag/Pontiac’s Revolution, Tecumseh’s Resistance, War of 1812, 1820 Treaty at Sault Ste. Marie, Treaty of Washington in 1836, the Mica Bay Incidence, Robinson-Huron Treaty of 1850, Industrialization, Assimilation Policy, Sault Ste. Marie locks, Indigenous Resistance, United States, Canada, Oshasuguscodaywayquay, Jane Johnston Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, Charlotte Johnston McMurray, William McMurray, Shingwaukonse, Augustine Shingwauk, Nebenaigoching, Whitefish Island
Subjects: D History General and Old World > DA Great Britain
Divisions: Faculties > Humanities > School of History
SWORD Depositor: System Moodle
Depositing User: System Moodle
Date Deposited: 31 Jan 2020 12:10 UTC
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2020 04:20 UTC
Resource URI: https://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/79901 (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
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