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Social heuristics and social roles: Intuition favors altruism for women but not for men

Rand, David G., Brescoll, Victoria L., Everett, Jim A. C., Capraro, Valerio, Barcelo, Hélène (2016) Social heuristics and social roles: Intuition favors altruism for women but not for men. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145 (4). pp. 389-396. ISSN 0096-3445. (doi:10.1037/xge0000154) (KAR id:79272)

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Abstract

Are humans intuitively altruistic, or does altruism require self-control? A theory of social heuristics, whereby intuitive responses favor typically successful behaviors, suggests that the answer may depend on who you are. In particular, evidence suggests that women are expected to behave altruistically, and are punished for failing to be altruistic, to a much greater extent than men. Thus, women (but not men) may internalize altruism as their intuitive response. Indeed, a meta-analysis of 13 new experiments and 9 experiments from other groups found that promoting intuition relative to deliberation increased giving in a Dictator Game among women, but not among men (Study 1, N = 4,366). Furthermore, this effect was shown to be moderated by explicit sex role identification (Study 2, N = 1,831): the more women described themselves using traditionally masculine attributes (e.g., dominance, independence) relative to traditionally feminine attributes (e.g., warmth, tenderness), the more deliberation reduced their altruism. Our findings shed light on the connection between gender and altruism, and highlight the importance of social heuristics in human prosociality.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1037/xge0000154
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Divisions: Faculties > Social Sciences > School of Psychology > Social Psychology
Depositing User: Jim Everett
Date Deposited: 12 Dec 2019 12:08 UTC
Last Modified: 16 Dec 2019 15:20 UTC
Resource URI: https://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/79272 (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
Everett, Jim A. C.: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2801-5426
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