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KFPA Examinations of Young STellar Object Natal Environments (KEYSTONE): Hierarchical Ammonia Structures in Galactic Giant Molecular Clouds

Keown, Jared, Francesco, James Di, Rosolowsky, Erik, Singh, Ayushi, Figura, Charles, Kirk, Helen, Anderson, L. D., Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan, Elia, Davide, Friesen, Rachel, and others. (2019) KFPA Examinations of Young STellar Object Natal Environments (KEYSTONE): Hierarchical Ammonia Structures in Galactic Giant Molecular Clouds. The Astrophysical Journal, 884 (1). p. 4. ISSN 1538-4357. (doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab3e76)

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Abstract

We present initial results from the K-band Focal Plane Array Examinations of Young STellar Object Natal Environments survey, a large project on the 100 m Green Bank Telescope mapping ammonia emission across 11 giant molecular clouds at distances of 0.9–3.0 kpc (Cygnus X North, Cygnus X South, M16, M17, Mon R1, Mon R2, NGC 2264, NGC 7538, Rosette, W3, and W48). This data release includes the \(NH^3\) (1,1) and (2,2) maps for each cloud, which are modeled to produce maps of kinetic temperature, centroid velocity, velocity dispersion, and ammonia column density. Median cloud kinetic temperatures range from 11.4 ± 2.2 K in the coldest cloud (Mon R1) to 23.0 ± 6.5 K in the warmest cloud (M17). Using dendrograms on the \(NH^3\) (1,1) integrated intensity maps, we identify 856 dense gas clumps across the 11 clouds. Depending on the cloud observed, 40%–100% of the clumps are aligned spatially with filaments identified in \(H^2\) column density maps derived from spectral energy distribution fitting of dust continuum emission. A virial analysis reveals that 523 of the 835 clumps (~63%) with mass estimates are bound by gravity alone. We find no significant difference between the virial parameter distributions for clumps aligned with the dust-continuum filaments and those unaligned with filaments. In some clouds, however, hubs or ridges of dense gas with unusually high mass and low virial parameters are located within a single filament or at the intersection of multiple filaments. These hubs and ridges tend to host water maser emission, multiple 70 μm detected protostars, and have masses and radii above an empirical threshold for forming massive stars.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab3e76
Divisions: Faculties > Sciences > School of Physical Sciences > Centre for Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences
Depositing User: James Urquhart
Date Deposited: 09 Oct 2019 12:45 UTC
Last Modified: 09 Oct 2019 12:46 UTC
Resource URI: https://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/77257 (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
Urquhart, James: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1605-8050
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