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(Smart)Watch Out! Encouraging Privacy-Protective Behavior through Interactive Games

Williams, Meredydd, Nurse, Jason R. C., Creese, Sadie (2019) (Smart)Watch Out! Encouraging Privacy-Protective Behavior through Interactive Games. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 132 . pp. 127-137. ISSN 1071-5819. (doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2019.07.012) (Access to this publication is currently restricted. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)

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https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2019.07.012

Abstract

The public frequently appear to overlook privacy, even when they claim to value it. This disparity between concern and behavior is known as the Privacy Paradox. Smartwatches are novel products that offer helpful functionality. However, although they often store sensitive data (e.g. text messages), owners rarely use protective features (e.g. app permissions). Campaigns have sought to increase privacy awareness, but initiatives tend to be ineffective. We therefore explore the efficacy of a serious game in encouraging protective smartwatch behavior. The application is designed with Learning Science principles and evaluated through a study with 504 smartwatch owners. After soliciting concerns and behavior, our treatment group [n = 252] play the online simulation. Our control group do not participate [n = 252], as we seek to limit extraneous variables. In a follow-up session, all users report posttest responses and qualitative justifications. We appear to encourage protective behavior, with our treatment group using privacy features more often. We also significantly reduce the prevalence of the Paradox, realigning behavior with concern. These quantitative findings are complemented by an inductive analysis of user rationale. Smartwatch behavior is influenced by several factors, including privacy awareness and data sensitivity. Finally, we use Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to develop intervention recommendations. These include risk exposure tools and protective demonstrations. To our knowledge, this is the first tool to encourage protective smartwatch behavior.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2019.07.012
Uncontrolled keywords: Privacy, Behavior change, Smartwatch, Serious game, Wearable, IoT
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Q Science > QA Mathematics (inc Computing science)
T Technology
Divisions: Faculties > Sciences > School of Computing > Security Group
Faculties > Sciences > School of Engineering and Digital Arts
Faculties > Social Sciences > School of Psychology
Depositing User: Jason Nurse
Date Deposited: 30 Jul 2019 17:15 UTC
Last Modified: 24 Sep 2019 13:48 UTC
Resource URI: https://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/75624 (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
Nurse, Jason R. C.: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4118-1680
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