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The Symbiotic Spectrum: Where Do the Gregarines Fit?

Rueckert, Sonja, Betts, Emma L., Tsaousis, Anastasios D (2019) The Symbiotic Spectrum: Where Do the Gregarines Fit? Trends In Parasitology, 35 (9). pp. 687-694. ISSN 1471-4922. (doi:10.1016/ (KAR id:74611)

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Gregarine apicomplexans are closely related to parasites such as Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium, which are causing severe health and economic burdens. Colonizing only invertebrates and having no obvious medical relevance, they are mostly ignored in ‘omics’ studies, although gregarines are the most basal apicomplexans and therefore key players in the understanding of the evolution of parasitism in the Apicomplexa from free-living ancestors. They belong to the only exclusively parasitic phylum of eukaryotes, but is this perception actually true? The effects of gregarines on their hosts seem to cover the whole spectrum of symbiosis from mutualistic to parasitic. We suggest future research directions to understand the evolutionary role of gregarines, by elucidating their biology and interaction with their hosts and the hosts’ microbiota.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1016/
Uncontrolled keywords: Apicomplexa, gregarines, symbiosis, parasitism, invertebrate microbiome
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Natural Sciences > Biosciences
Funders: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (
Depositing User: Anastasios Tsaousis
Date Deposited: 27 Jun 2019 09:07 UTC
Last Modified: 12 Jul 2022 10:41 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
Tsaousis, Anastasios D:
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