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Dental microwear texture analysis of Homo sapiens sapiens: foragers, farmers, and pastoralists

Schmidt, Christopher W., Remy, Ashley, Van Sessen, Rebecca, Willman, John, Krueger, Kristin, Scott, Rachel, Mahoney, Patrick, Beach, Jeremy, McKinley, Jaqueline, d'Anastasio, Ruggero, and others. (2019) Dental microwear texture analysis of Homo sapiens sapiens: foragers, farmers, and pastoralists. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 169 (2). pp. 207-226. E-ISSN 1096-8644. (doi:10.1002/ajpa.23815) (KAR id:72642)

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Abstract

Objectives. The current study seeks to determine if a sample of foragers, farmers, and pastoralists can be distinguished by their dental microwear texture signatures.

Materials and Methods. The study included a sample of 719 individuals from 51 archaeological sites (450 farmers, 192 foragers, 77 pastoralists). All were over age 12 and sexes were pooled. Using a Sensofar® white-light confocal profiler we collected dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) data from a single first or second molar from each individual. We leveled and cleaned data clouds following standard procedures and analyzed the data with Sfrax® and Toothfrax® software. The DMTA variables were complexity and anisotropy. Statistics included ANOVA with partial eta squared and Hedges's g. We also performed a follow-up K-means cluster analysis.

Results. We found significant differences between foragers and farmers and pastoralists for complexity and anisotropy, with foragers having greater complexity than either the farmers or the pastoralists. The farmers and pastoralists had greater anisotropy than the foragers. The Old World foragers had significantly higher anisotropy values than New World foragers. Old and New World farmers did not differ. Among the Old World farmers, those dating from the Neolithic through the Late Bronze Age had higher complexity values than those from the Iron Age through the medieval period. The cluster analysis discerned foragers and farmers but also indicated similarity between hard food foragers and hard food farmers.

Discussion. Our findings reaffirm that DMTA is capable of distinguishing human diets. We found that foragers and farmers, in particular, differ in their microwear signatures across the globe. There are some exceptions, but nothing that would be unexpected given the range of human diets and food preparation techniques. This study indicates that in general DMTA is an efficacious means of paleodietary reconstruction in humans.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1002/ajpa.23815
Uncontrolled keywords: teeth, diet, archaeology, subsistence
Subjects: H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
Divisions: Faculties > Social Sciences > School of Anthropology and Conservation
Faculties > Social Sciences > School of Anthropology and Conservation > Biological Anthropology
Depositing User: Patrick Mahoney
Date Deposited: 20 Feb 2019 09:54 UTC
Last Modified: 18 Mar 2020 00:00 UTC
Resource URI: https://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/72642 (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
Mahoney, Patrick: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2715-3096
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