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Free-Riders in the Nonprofit Industrial Complex: The Problem of Flexitarianism

Wrenn, Corey (2020) Free-Riders in the Nonprofit Industrial Complex: The Problem of Flexitarianism. Society and Animals, 26 (4). pp. 567-591. ISSN 1063-1119. E-ISSN 1568-5306. (doi:10.1163/15685306-12341544) (KAR id:72424)


Social movements have traditionally viewed free-riders as a problem for effective mobilization, but under the influence of the nonprofit industrial complex, it is possible that movements actively facilitate their presence. Free-riders become an economic resource to professionalized movements seeking to increase wealth and visibility inthe crowded social movement space by discouraging meaningful attitude or behavior change from their audiences and concentrating power among movement elites. Actively cultivated free-riding is exemplified by the professionalized Nonhuman Animal rights movement which promotes flexitarianism over ethical veganism despite its goal of nonhuman liberation. Major social-psychological theories of persuasion in addition to 44 studies on vegan and vegetarian motivation are examined to illustrate how free-rider flexitarianism is at odds with stated goals, thereby suggesting an alternative utility in flexitarianism as a means of facilitating a disengaged public.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1163/15685306-12341544
Uncontrolled keywords: animal rights – flexitarianism – free-rider problem – nonprofit-industrial complex - veganism
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HM Sociology
Divisions: Divisions > Division for the Study of Law, Society and Social Justice > School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research
Depositing User: Corey Wrenn
Date Deposited: 13 Feb 2019 07:41 UTC
Last Modified: 09 Dec 2022 06:32 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

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