Development and Initial Validation of the Endurance Sport Self-efficacy Scale (ESSES)

Anstiss, Paul and Meijen, Carla and Madigan, Daniel J. and Marcora, Samuele Maria (2018) Development and Initial Validation of the Endurance Sport Self-efficacy Scale (ESSES). Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 38 . pp. 176-183. ISSN 1469-0292. (doi: (Access to this publication is currently restricted. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)

PDF - Author's Accepted Manuscript
Restricted to Repository staff only until 30 December 2019.

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Contact us about this Publication Download (246kB)
Official URL


Self-efficacy is likely to be an important psychological construct for endurance sport performance. Research into the role of self-efficacy, however, is limited as there is currently no validated measure of endurance sport self-efficacy. Consequently, the purpose of the present research was to develop and validate the Endurance Sport Self-Efficacy Scale (ESSES). In Study 1, an initial item pool was developed following a review of the literature. These items were then examined for content validity by an expert panel. In Study 2, the resultant 18 items were subjected to exploratory factor analyses. These analyses provided support for a unidimensional scale comprised of 11 items. Study 2 also provided evidence for the ESSES’s convergent validity. In Study 3, using confirmatory factor analyses, further support was found for the 11-item unidimensional structure. Study 3 also provided evidence for the ESSES’s convergent and concurrent validity. The present findings provide initial evidence that the ESSES is a valid and reliable measure of self-efficacy beliefs in endurance sports.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled keywords: endurance, performance, belief, questionnaire, efficacy
Subjects: Q Science
Divisions: Faculties > Sciences > School of Sport and Exercise Sciences
Depositing User: Samuele Marcora
Date Deposited: 12 Jul 2018 17:32 UTC
Last Modified: 04 Dec 2018 10:25 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
Marcora, Samuele Maria:
  • Depositors only (login required):


Downloads per month over past year