Skip to main content

Development and validation of a revised instrument to measure burden of long-term medicines use: the Living with Medicines Questionnaire version 3

Katusiime, Barbra, Corlett, Sarah, Krska, Janet (2018) Development and validation of a revised instrument to measure burden of long-term medicines use: the Living with Medicines Questionnaire version 3. Patient Related Outcome Measures, 9 . pp. 155-168. ISSN 1179-271X. E-ISSN 1179-271X. (doi:10.2147/PROM.S151143)

PDF - Publisher pdf

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Download (721kB) Preview
MS Office Open XML (OOXML) (Form to request use of LMQ v3 2018) - Supplemental Material
Download (18kB)
PDF (Use of LMQ v3 terms and conditions and licence) - Supplemental Material
Download (356kB) Preview
Official URL


Objectives To revise the Living with Medicines Questionnaire (LMQ-2), which measures the burden of using prescribed medicines, to include cost and expand side effects and social issues. Methods New statements were developed and validated through cognitive interviews with medicines users and these and a global visual analogue scale (VAS) added to the 42-item LMQ-2. Construct validity was assessed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses using an on-line public survey. Criterion-related validity was measured against the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire with Medication (TSQM-II) and the EQ-5D-5L, in patients using community pharmacies, general practices and out-patient clinics. Reliability was assessed by test-re-test using on-line public distribution. Results The 58-item interim instrument (n=729) was reduced to 41 items after factor analysis, which confirmed an eight-domain structure: relationships with health professionals, practicalities, interferences, effectiveness, side effects, concerns, cost, autonomy, constructed as medicines burden. All subscales, except autonomy, loaded onto this construct and showed acceptable internal consistency. LMQ-VAS correlated with total LMQ scores (r=0.571). Criterion validation (n=422) demonstrated total LMQ scores negatively correlated with TSQM scores for global satisfaction (r=-0.616); domain scores showed similar correlations: effectiveness (r=-0.628), side-effects (r=-0.597), practicalities (r=-0.529). Total LMQ score was negatively correlated with EQ VAS (r=-0.383) and showed weak/moderate relationships with individual EQ-5D-5L dimensions. Test-retest (n=30) showed intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.954 (total LMQ score), 0.733-0.929 (domain scores) and 0.789 (global item). Conclusion The LMQ-3 instrument has acceptable construct, criterion-related and known-groups validity, and is internally consistent as a measure of medicines burden, although reliability requires further confirmation. It could be used to measure the outcome of interventions designed to reduce the burden of polypharmacy.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.2147/PROM.S151143
Additional information: The 'Living with Medicines Questionnaire' is under licence to the University of Kent. Permission to use it is available from Janet Krska. You will need to sign the licence agreement and complete the request form available from this record and send them to . Professor Krska will send you the current version of LMQ-3.
Uncontrolled keywords: medicine burden, patient experience, polypharmacy, long-term conditions
Subjects: R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Divisions: Faculties > Sciences > Medway School of Pharmacy
Depositing User: Janet Krska
Date Deposited: 04 Jun 2018 13:03 UTC
Last Modified: 29 May 2019 20:36 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
  • Depositors only (login required):


Downloads per month over past year