Herd Immunity to Ebolaviruses Is Not a Realistic Target for Current Vaccination Strategies

Masterson, Stuart G., Lobel, Leslie, Carroll, Miles W., Wass, Mark N., Michaelis, Martin (2018) Herd Immunity to Ebolaviruses Is Not a Realistic Target for Current Vaccination Strategies. Frontiers in Immunology, 9 . ISSN 1664-3224. (doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.01025)

PDF - Publisher pdf

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Download (455kB) Preview
[img]
Preview
PDF - Author's Accepted Manuscript

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Download (228kB) Preview
[img]
Preview
Official URL
https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01025

Abstract

The recent West African Ebola virus pandemic, which affected >28,000 individuals increased interest in anti-Ebolavirus vaccination programs. Here, we systematically analyzed the requirements for a prophylactic vaccination program based on the basic reproductive number (R0, i.e. the number of secondary cases that result from an individual infection). Published R0 values were determined by systematic literature research and ranged from 0.37 to 20. R0s ?4 realistically reflected the critical early outbreak phases and superspreading events. Based on the R0, the herd immunity threshold (Ic) was calculated using the equation Ic=1–(1/R0). The critical vaccination coverage (Vc) needed to provide herd immunity was determined by including the vaccine effectiveness (E) using the equation Vc=Ic/E. At an R0 of 4, the Ic is 75% and at an E of 90%, more than 80% of a population need to be vaccinated to establish herd immunity. Such vaccination rates are currently unrealistic because of resistance against vaccinations, financial/ logistical challenges, and a lack of vaccines that provide long-term protection against all human-pathogenic Ebolaviruses. Hence, outbreak management will for the foreseeable future depend on surveillance and case isolation. Clinical vaccine candidates are only available for Ebola viruses. Their use will need to be focused on health care workers, potentially in combination with ring vaccination approaches.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01025
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology
Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR180 Immunology
Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR355 Virology
Divisions: Faculties > Sciences > School of Biosciences
Depositing User: Martin Michaelis
Date Deposited: 09 May 2018 12:31 UTC
Last Modified: 29 May 2019 20:31 UTC
Resource URI: https://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/66962 (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
Wass, Mark N.: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5428-6479
Michaelis, Martin: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5710-5888
  • Depositors only (login required):

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year