Skip to main content
Kent Academic Repository

Massive Outflows Associated with Atlasgal Clumps

Yang, A. Y., Thompson, M. A., Urquhart, J.S., Tian, W. W. (2018) Massive Outflows Associated with Atlasgal Clumps. Astrophysical Journal Supplement, 235 (1). pp. 1-20. ISSN 0067-0049. E-ISSN 1538-4365. (doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aaa297) (KAR id:65421)


We have undertaken the largest survey for outflows within the Galactic plane using simultaneously observed 13CO and C18O data. Out of a total of 919 ATLASGAL clumps, 325 have data suitable to identify outflows, and 225 (69% ± 3%) show high-velocity outflows. The clumps with detected outflows show significantly higher clump masses (Mclump), bolometric luminosities (Lbol), luminosity-to-mass ratios (Lbol/Mclump), and peak H2 column densities (NH2) compared to those without outflows. Outflow activity has been detected within the youngest quiescent clump (i.e., 70μm weak) in this sample, and we find that the outflow detection rate increases with Mclump, Lbol, Lbol/Mclump and NH2, approaching 90% in some cases (UC H ii regions = 93% ± 3%; masers = 86% ± 4%; HC H ii regions = 100%). This high detection rate suggests that outflows are ubiquitous phenomena of massive star formation (MSF). The mean outflow mass entrainment rate implies a mean accretion rate of ~10-4Myr-1) in full agreement with the accretion rate predicted by theoretical models of MSF. Outflow properties are tightly correlated with Mclump, Lbol, and Lbol/Mclump and show the strongest relation with the bolometric clump luminosity. This suggests that outflows might be driven by the most massive and luminous source within the clump. The correlations are similar for both low-mass and high-mass outflows over 7 orders of magnitude, indicating that they may share a similar outflow mechanism. Outflow energy is comparable to the turbulent energy within the clump; however, we find no evidence that outflows increase the level of clump turbulence as the clumps evolve. This implies that the origin of turbulence within clumps is fixed before the onset of star formation.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.3847/1538-4365/aaa297
Uncontrolled keywords: stars: formation–stars: massive–stars: early-type–ISM: jets and outflows–ISM: molecules--submillimetre: ISM
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy > QB460 Astrophysics
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Natural Sciences > Physics and Astronomy
Depositing User: James Urquhart
Date Deposited: 13 Dec 2017 16:20 UTC
Last Modified: 04 Mar 2024 19:13 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

University of Kent Author Information

  • Depositors only (login required):

Total unique views for this document in KAR since July 2020. For more details click on the image.