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Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire (LTCQ): initial validation survey among primary care patients and social care recipients in England

Potter, Caroline M., Batchelder, Laurie, A’Court, Christine, Geneen, Louise, Kelly, Laura, Fox, Diane, Baker, Matthew, Bostock, Jennifer, Coulter, Angela, Fitzpatrick, Ray, and others. (2017) Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire (LTCQ): initial validation survey among primary care patients and social care recipients in England. BMJ Open, 7 . Article Number e019235. E-ISSN 2044-6055. (doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019235) (KAR id:64053)

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Objective: The aim of this study was to validate a new generic patient-reported outcome measure, the Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire (LTCQ), among a diverse sample of health and social care users in England. Design: Cross-sectional validation survey. Data were collected through postal surveys (February 2016 - January 2017). The sample included a health care cohort of patients recruited through primary care practices, and a social care cohort recruited through local government bodies that provide social care services. Participants: 1,211 participants (24% confirmed social care recipients) took part in the study. Health care participants were recruited on the basis of having one of eleven specified LTCs, and social care participants were recruited on the basis of receiving social care support for at least one LTC. The sample exhibited high multi-morbidity, with 93% reporting two or more LTCs and 43% reporting a mental health condition. Outcome measures: The LTCQ’s construct validity was tested with reference to the EQ-5D (5-level version), the Self-efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease scale, an Activities of Daily Living scale, and the Bayliss burden of morbidity scale. Results: Low levels of missing data for each item indicate acceptability of the LTCQ across the sample. The LTCQ exhibits high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.95) across the scale’s 20 items and excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.94, 95% CI 0.93 to 0.95). Associations between the LTCQ and all reference measures were moderate to strong and in the expected directions, indicating convergent construct validity. Conclusions: This study provides evidence for the reliability and validity of the Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire, which has potential for use in both health and social care settings. The LTCQ could meet a need for holistic outcome measurement that goes beyond symptoms and physical function, complementing existing measures to fully capture what it means to live well with LTCs.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019235
Uncontrolled keywords: long-term conditions, chronic illness, patient-reported outcome measure, multimorbidity, person-centred care
Subjects: H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
Divisions: Divisions > Division for the Study of Law, Society and Social Justice > School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research > Personal Social Services Research Unit
Depositing User: Karen Jones
Date Deposited: 17 Oct 2017 08:12 UTC
Last Modified: 10 Dec 2022 04:24 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

University of Kent Author Information

Batchelder, Laurie.

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Fox, Diane.

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Forder, Julien E..

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Jones, Karen C..

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