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Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance

Blanchfield, Anthony W, Hardy, James, Marcora, Samuele Maria (2014) Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8 (967). ISSN 1662-5161. (doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00967) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided) (KAR id:59953)

The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided. (Contact us about this Publication)
Official URL
https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00967

Abstract

The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effects of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces) revealed that individuals cycled significantly longer (178 s, p = 0.04) when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 × 5 (condition × iso-time) ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the time to exhaustion (TTE) test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = 0.04). In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03). These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00967
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Natural Sciences > School of Sport and Exercise Sciences
Depositing User: Samuele Marcora
Date Deposited: 20 Jan 2017 12:06 UTC
Last Modified: 16 Feb 2021 13:41 UTC
Resource URI: https://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/59953 (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
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