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Stardust-NExT, Deep Impact, and the accelerating spin of 9P/Tempel 1

Belton, M.J.S., Meech, K.J., Chesley, S., Pittichová, J., Carcich, B., Drahus, M., Harris, A., Gillam, S., Veverka, J., Mastrodemos, N., and others. (2011) Stardust-NExT, Deep Impact, and the accelerating spin of 9P/Tempel 1. Icarus, 213 (1). pp. 345-368. ISSN 0019-1035. (doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.01.006) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)

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Official URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2011.01.006

Abstract

The evolution of the spin rate of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 through two perihelion passages (in 2000 and 2005) is determined from 1922 Earth-based observations taken over a period of 13. year as part of a World-Wide observing campaign and from 2888 observations taken over a period of 50 days from the Deep Impact spacecraft. We determine the following sidereal spin rates (periods): 209.023 ± 0.025°/dy (41.335 ± 0.005. h) prior to the 2000 perihelion passage, 210.448 ± 0.016°/dy (41.055 ± 0.003. h) for the interval between the 2000 and 2005 perihelion passages, 211.856 ± 0.030°/dy (40.783 ± 0.006. h) from Deep Impact photometry just prior to the 2005 perihelion passage, and 211.625 ± 0.012°/dy (40.827 ± 0.002. h) in the interval 2006-2010 following the 2005 perihelion passage. The period decreased by 16.8 ± 0.3. min during the 2000 passage and by 13.7 ± 0.2. min during the 2005 passage suggesting a secular decrease in the net torque. The change in spin rate is asymmetric with respect to perihelion with the maximum net torque being applied on approach to perihelion. The Deep Impact data alone show that the spin rate was increasing at a rate of 0.024 ± 0.003°/dy/dy at JD2453530.60510 (i.e., 25.134 dy before impact), which provides independent confirmation of the change seen in the Earth-based observations.The rotational phase of the nucleus at times before and after each perihelion and at the Deep Impact encounter is estimated based on the Thomas et al. (Thomas et al. [2007]. Icarus 187, 4-15) pole and longitude system. The possibility of a 180° error in the rotational phase is assessed and found to be significant. Analytical and physical modeling of the behavior of the spin rate through of each perihelion is presented and used as a basis to predict the rotational state of the nucleus at the time of the nominal (i.e., prior to February 2010) Stardust-NExT encounter on 2011 February 14 at 20:42.We find that a net torque in the range of 0.3-2.5×107kgm2s-2 acts on the nucleus during perihelion passage. The spin rate initially slows down on approach to perihelion and then passes through a minimum. It then accelerates rapidly as it passes through perihelion eventually reaching a maximum post-perihelion. It then decreases to a stable value as the nucleus moves away from the Sun. We find that the pole direction is unlikely to precess by more than ~1° per perihelion passage. The trend of the period with time and the fact that the modeled peak torque occurs before perihelion are in agreement with published accounts of trends in water production rate and suggests that widespread H2O out-gassing from the surface is largely responsible for the observed spin-up. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1016/j.icarus.2011.01.006
Additional information: Unmapped bibliographic data: LA - English [Field not mapped to EPrints] J2 - Icarus [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Belton Space Exploration Initiatives, LLC, 430 S. Randolph Way, Tucson, AZ 85716, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG, United Kingdom [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 65011, Yunnan, China [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educacíon, Dep. Fisica, Avda. Jose Pedro Alessandri 774, Santiago, Chile [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Max-Planck Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck Str. 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Dept. Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Te-Aviv, Israel [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Gemini Observatory, C/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Grad. Inst. Of Astronomy, National Central Univ., 300 Jhongda Road, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedukdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348, South Korea [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Univ. Texas, Dept. of Astronomy, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Centre for Astrophysics and Planetary Science School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NH, United Kingdom [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, FL 32816-2385, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia - CSIC, Box 3004, E-18080 Granada, Spain [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19, Chile [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Geophysical Institute, Univ. AK, 903 Koyukuk Dr., Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Lowell Observatory, 1400 Mars Hill Rd., Flagstaff, AZ 86001, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Department of Astronomy, College of Science, 134 Sinchon-dong, Sodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749, South Korea [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Texas A and M University, Department of Physics, College Station, TX 77843, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Departmento de Astrofisica, Universidad de la laguna, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Planetary Exploration Group, Space Department, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Rd., Laurel, MD 20723, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E. Ft. Lowell Rd., #106, Tucson, AZ 85719-2395, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, I-50125, Italy [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - HAS, 47-728 Hui Kelu St. #9, Kaneohe, HI 96744, United States [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Purple Mountain Obs. Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2# West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China [Field not mapped to EPrints] DB - Scopus [Field not mapped to EPrints]
Uncontrolled keywords: Comet Tempel 1, Comets, Comets, Nucleus, Rotational dynamics
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Divisions: Faculties > Sciences > School of Physical Sciences > Centre for Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences
Depositing User: Stephen Lowry
Date Deposited: 08 Dec 2015 22:01 UTC
Last Modified: 29 May 2019 16:29 UTC
Resource URI: https://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/52286 (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
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