Skip to main content

PIN generation using EEG : a stability study

Palaniappan, Ramaswamy, Revett, Kenneth (2014) PIN generation using EEG : a stability study. International Journal of Biometrics, 6 (2). pp. 95-106. ISSN 1755-8301. (doi:10.1504/IJBM.2014.060960)

PDF (Accepted version (proof) - 6 months embargo expired) - Author's Accepted Manuscript
Download (301kB) Preview
Official URL


In a previous study, it has been shown that brain activity, i.e. electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, can be used to generate personal identification number (PIN). The method was based on brain–computer interface (BCI) technology using a P300-based BCI approach and showed that a single-channel EEG was sufficient to generate PIN without any error for three subjects. The advantage of this method is obviously its better fraud resistance compared to conventional methods of PIN generation such as entering the numbers using a keypad. Here, we investigate the stability of these EEG signals when used with a neural network classifier, i.e. to investigate the changes in the performance of the method over time. Our results, based on recording conducted over a period of three months, indicate that a single channel is no longer sufficient and a multiple electrode configuration is necessary to maintain acceptable performances. Alternatively, a recording session to retrain the neural network classifier can be conducted on shorter intervals, though practically this might not be viable.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1504/IJBM.2014.060960
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics (inc Computing science) > QA 75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Divisions: Faculties > Sciences > School of Computing > Data Science
Depositing User: Palaniappan Ramaswamy
Date Deposited: 15 Jul 2015 11:32 UTC
Last Modified: 29 May 2019 14:51 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
Palaniappan, Ramaswamy:
  • Depositors only (login required):


Downloads per month over past year