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Characterizing the hierarchical structures of bioactive sol-gel silicate glass and hybrid scaffolds for bone regeneration

Martin, R.A., Yue, S., Hanna, J.V., Lee, P.D., Newport, Robert J., Smith, M.E., Jones, J.R. (2012) Characterizing the hierarchical structures of bioactive sol-gel silicate glass and hybrid scaffolds for bone regeneration. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 370 (1963). pp. 1422-1443. ISSN 1364-503X. (doi:10.1098/rsta.2011.0308) (KAR id:46958)


Bone is the second most widely transplanted tissue after blood. Synthetic alternatives are needed that can reduce the need for transplants and regenerate bone by acting as active temporary templates for bone growth. Bioactive glasses are one of the most promising bone replacement/regeneration materials because they bond to existing bone, are degradable and stimulate new bone growth by the action of their dissolution products on cells. Sol–gel-derived bioactive glasses can be foamed to produce interconnected macropores suitable for tissue ingrowth, particularly cell migration and vascularization and cell penetration. The scaffolds fulfil many of the criteria of an ideal synthetic bone graft, but are not suitable for all bone defect sites because they are brittle. One strategy for improving toughness of the scaffolds without losing their other beneficial properties is to synthesize inorganic/organic hybrids. These hybrids have polymers introduced into the sol–gel process so that the organic and inorganic components interact at the molecular level, providing control over mechanical properties and degradation rates. However, a full understanding of how each feature or property of the glass and hybrid scaffolds affects cellular response is needed to optimize the materials and ensure long-term success and clinical products. This review focuses on the techniques that have been developed for characterizing the hierarchical structures of sol–gel glasses and hybrids, from atomic-scale amorphous networks, through the covalent bonding between components in hybrids and nanoporosity, to quantifying open macroporous networks of the scaffolds. Methods for non-destructive in situ monitoring of degradation and bioactivity mechanisms of the materials are also included.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1098/rsta.2011.0308
Additional information: Unmapped bibliographic data: LA - English [Field not mapped to EPrints] J2 - Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. [Field not mapped to EPrints] C2 - 22349249 [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M1 7HS, United Kingdom [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NH, United Kingdom [Field not mapped to EPrints] DB - Scopus [Field not mapped to EPrints]
Uncontrolled keywords: Bioactive glass, Bone regeneration, Scaffolds, Sol-gel, Tissue engineering, Amorphous networks, Atomic scale, Bone defect, Bone growth, Bone regeneration, Bone replacement, Cell migration, Cell penetration, Cellular response, Covalent bonding, Degradation rate, Dissolution products, Hierarchical structures, Hybrid scaffolds, In-situ monitoring, Inorganic components, Inorganic/organic hybrid, Macropores, Macroporous, Molecular levels, Nanoporosity, Non destructive, Sol-gel glass, Sol-gel silicates, Synthetic bone grafts, Tissue in-growth, Vascularization, Bioactive glass, Biomechanics, Bone, Degradation, Growth (materials), Hybrid materials, Mechanical properties, Organic polymers, Scaffolds, Silicates, Sol-gel process, Sol-gels, Tissue, Tissue engineering, Scaffolds (biology), drug carrier, glass, silicate, tissue scaffold, animal, bone prosthesis, bone regeneration, chemistry, human, phase transition, physiology, review, Animals, Bone Regeneration, Bone Substitutes, Drug Carriers, Glass, Humans, Phase Transition, Silicates, Tissue Scaffolds
Subjects: Q Science > QC Physics > QC173.45 Condensed Matter
Q Science > QD Chemistry > QD478 Solid State Chemistry
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Natural Sciences > Physics and Astronomy
Depositing User: Giles Tarver
Date Deposited: 12 Feb 2015 12:43 UTC
Last Modified: 16 Nov 2021 10:19 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

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