Skip to main content
Kent Academic Repository

Bias in judgement: Comparing individuals and groups

Kerr, Norbert L., MacCoun, Robert J., Kramer, Geoffrey P. (1996) Bias in judgement: Comparing individuals and groups. Psychological Review, 103 (4). pp. 687-719. ISSN 0033-295X. E-ISSN 1939-1471. (doi:10.1037/0033-295X.103.4.687) (KAR id:41331)

PDF (Restricted due to publisher copyright policies) Publisher pdf
Language: English
Download this file
[thumbnail of Restricted due to publisher copyright policies]
Request a format suitable for use with assistive technology e.g. a screenreader
Official URL:


The relative susceptibility of individuals and groups to systematic judgmental biases is considered. An overview of the relevant empirical literature reveals no clear or general pattern. However, a theoretical analysis employing J. H. Davis's (1973) social decision scheme (SDS) model reveals that the relative magnitude of individual and group bias depends upon several factors, including group size, initial individual judgment, the magnitude of bias among individuals, the type of bias, and most of all, the group-judgment process. It is concluded that there can be no simple answer to the question, "Which are more biased, individuals or groups?," but the SDS model offers a framework for specifying some of the conditions under which individuals are both more and less biased than groups.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1037/0033-295X.103.4.687
Subjects: H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Human and Social Sciences > School of Psychology
Depositing User: Norbert Kerr
Date Deposited: 07 Jun 2014 21:56 UTC
Last Modified: 16 Nov 2021 10:16 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

University of Kent Author Information

Kerr, Norbert L..

Creator's ORCID:
CReDIT Contributor Roles:
  • Depositors only (login required):

Total unique views for this document in KAR since July 2020. For more details click on the image.