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A cultural task analysis of implicit independence: Comparing North America, Western Europe, and East Asia.

Kitayama, Shinobu, Park, Hyekyung, Sevincer, A. Timur, Karasawa, Mayumi, Uskul, Ayse K. (2009) A cultural task analysis of implicit independence: Comparing North America, Western Europe, and East Asia. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97 (2). pp. 236-255. ISSN 0022-3514. (doi:10.1037/a0015999) (KAR id:32298)

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Informed by a new theoretical framework that assigns a key role to cultural tasks (culturally prescribed means to achieve cultural mandates such as independence and interdependence) in mediating the mutual influences between culture and psychological processes, the authors predicted and found that North Americans are more likely than Western Europeans (British and Germans) to (a) exhibit focused (vs. holistic) attention, (b) experience emotions associated with independence (vs. interdependence), (c) associate happiness with personal achievement (vs. communal harmony), and (d) show an inflated symbolic self. In no cases were the 2 Western European groups significantly different from one another. All Western groups showed (e) an equally strong dispositional bias in attribution. Across all of the implicit indicators of independence, Japanese were substantially less independent (or more interdependent) than the three Western groups. An explicit self-belief measure of independence and interdependence showed an anomalous pattern. These data were interpreted to suggest that the contemporary American ethos has a significant root in both Western cultural heritage and a history of voluntary settlement. Further analysis offered unique support for the cultural task analysis.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1037/a0015999
Subjects: H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Human and Social Sciences > School of Psychology
Depositing User: Ayse Uskul
Date Deposited: 06 Dec 2012 15:51 UTC
Last Modified: 16 Feb 2021 12:43 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
Kitayama, Shinobu:
Uskul, Ayse K.:
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