# EnviroGenomarkers: The Interplay between Mechanisms and Difference Making in Establishing Causal Claims

Russo, Federica, Williamson, Jon (2012) EnviroGenomarkers: The Interplay between Mechanisms and Difference Making in Establishing Causal Claims. Medicine Studies, 3 (4). pp. 249-262. ISSN 1876-4533. (doi:10.1007/s12376-012-0079-7) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)

 The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided. (Contact us about this Publication) Official URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12376-012-0079-7

## Abstract

According to Russo and Williamson (2007, 2011a,b), in order to establish a causal claim of the form C is a cause of E', one needs evidence that there is an underlying mechanism between C and E as well as evidence that C makes a difference to E. This thesis has been used to argue that hierarchies of evidence, as championed by evidence-based movements, tend to give primacy to evidence of difference making over evidence of mechanism, and are flawed because the two sorts of evidence are required and they should be treated on a par.

An alternative approach gives primacy to evidence of mechanism over evidence of difference making. In this paper we argue that this alternative approach is equally flawed, again because both sorts of evidence need to be treated on a par. As an illustration of this parity we explain how scientists working in the EnviroGenomarkers' project constantly make use of the two evidential components in a dynamic and intertwined way. We argue that such an interplay is needed not only for causal assessment but also for policy purposes.

Item Type: Article 10.1007/s12376-012-0079-7 Causality Disease causation Public health policy Mechanisms Russo–Williamson thesis Biomarkers B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BC LogicQ Science Faculties > Humanities > School of European Culture and Languages > Philosophy Jon Williamson 27 Nov 2012 16:25 UTC 01 Aug 2019 10:35 UTC https://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/32198 (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes) https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0514-4209
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