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The effect of terpene concentrations on the skin penetration of diclofenac sodium

Nokhodchi, Ali, Sharabiani, K., Rashidi, Mohammad Reza, Ghafourian, Taravat (2007) The effect of terpene concentrations on the skin penetration of diclofenac sodium. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 335 (2). pp. 97-105. ISSN 03785173 (ISSN). (doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2006.10.041) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided) (KAR id:29428)

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Terpenes and sesquiterpenes have been suggested as promising non-toxic, non-irritating transdermal penetration enhancers. This investigation aimed to study the effect of terpene concentration on the transdermal absorption of diclofenac sodium from ethanol:glycerin:phosphate buffer solution (60:10:30). Therefore, enhancing effects of various terpenes (menthone, limonenoxide, carvone, nerolidol and farnsol) with different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.5%, v/v) on the permeation of diclofenac sodium were evaluated using Franz diffusion cells fitted with rat skin. Furthermore, solubility of diclofenac sodium in the vehicle in presence of different concentrations of terpenes was determined. The results showed that despite the negligible effect of terpenes on the drug solubility, there was a profound skin penetration enhancement effect, although the terpene enhancers varied in their ability to enhance the flux of diclofenac sodium. The results showed that at the highest concentration of terpene (2.5%, v/v) the rank order of enhancement effect for diclofenac sodium was nerolidol > farnesol > carvone > methone > limonenoxide, whereas at the low concentration of 0.25% the rank order was farnesol > carvone > nerolidol > menthone > limonenoxide. No direct relationship existed between terpene concentration and the permeation rate. The most outstanding penetration enhancer was nerolidol, providing an almost 198-fold increase in permeability coefficient of diclofenac sodium, followed by farnesol with a 78-fold increase. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2006.10.041
Additional information: Unmapped bibliographic data: PY - 2007/// [EPrints field already has value set] AD - Medway School of Pharmacy, University of Kent and Greenwich, Central Ave, Chatham, Kent ME4 4TB England, United Kingdom [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - School of Pharmacy, Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz Medical Sciences University, Tabriz, 51664, Iran [Field not mapped to EPrints] JA - Int. J. Pharm. [Field not mapped to EPrints]
Uncontrolled keywords: Diclofenac sodium, Enhancer, log P, Skin permeation, Terpenes, carvone, diclofenac, excipient, farnsol, limonenoxide, menthone, nerolidol, terpene derivative, unclassified drug, animal tissue, article, cell assay, concentration response, controlled study, drug absorption, drug solubility, drug transport, male, nonhuman, priority journal, rat, skin penetration, skin permeability, Administration, Cutaneous, Animals, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal, Chemistry, Pharmaceutical, Diclofenac, Diffusion, Diffusion Chambers, Culture, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Ethanol, Farnesol, Glycerol, Male, Menthol, Molecular Structure, Monoterpenes, Organ Culture Techniques, Permeability, Rats, Rats, Wistar, Sesquiterpenes, Skin, Skin Absorption, Solubility, Solvents, Terpenes
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
R Medicine > RL Dermatology
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Natural Sciences > Medway School of Pharmacy
Depositing User: Taravat Ghafourian
Date Deposited: 29 Dec 2013 17:12 UTC
Last Modified: 16 Nov 2021 10:07 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

University of Kent Author Information

Nokhodchi, Ali.

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Ghafourian, Taravat.

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