The 2 x 2 model of perfectionism: A critical comment and some suggestions

Stoeber, Joachim (2012) The 2 x 2 model of perfectionism: A critical comment and some suggestions. Personality and Individual Differences, 53 (5). pp. 541-545. (doi: (Full text available)

Download (171kB) Preview


The 2 x 2 model of perfectionism (Gaudreau & Thompson, 2010) is an important, timely, and welcome addition to the debate on the adaptiveness versus maladaptiveness of perfectionism. Research has long differentiated two dimensions of perfectionism ― evaluative concerns perfectionism (ECP) and personal standards perfectionism (PSP) ― but the 2 x 2 model opens new perspectives hypothesizing that pure ECP (the combination of high ECP and low PSP) is more maladaptive than mixed perfectionism (high ECP, high PSP). With this, the model challenges the tripartite model of perfectionism (e.g., Rice & Ashby, 2007) which does not differentiate between pure ECP and non-perfectionism (low ECP, low PSP). However, the 2 x 2 model has some aspects I regard as problematic. First, it is not parsimonious comprising unnecessary and contradictory hypotheses. Second, it encourages the interpretation of statistically nonsignificant results. Third, it makes suggestions about “distinct subtypes” of perfectionism that are confusing because all the model’s hypotheses can be tested with moderated regression analysis (Gaudreau, 2012). This comment makes some suggestions on how to address these aspects so future research can make the best use of the 2 x 2 model’s hypotheses to further advance our understanding of the adaptiveness and maladaptiveness of perfectionism.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled keywords: evaluative concerns perfectionism; personal standards perfectionism; perfectionistic strivings; perfectionistic concerns; healthy perfectionism; unhealthy perfectionism
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Divisions: Faculties > Social Sciences > School of Psychology
Depositing User: Joachim Stoeber
Date Deposited: 19 Apr 2012 04:54 UTC
Last Modified: 17 Jan 2017 11:45 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
  • Depositors only (login required):