Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration in houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii)

Bailey, Tom A. and Sheen, R.S. and Silvanose, C. and Samour, Jamie H. and Garner, Andrew and Harron, D.W.G. (1998) Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration in houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 21 (4). pp. 288-97. ISSN 0140-7783. (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)

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The in-vitro activity of enrofloxacin against 117 strains of bacteria isolated from bustards was determined. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for 72% of the Proteus spp., E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Klebsiella spp. (n = 61) and for 48% of the Streptococci spp, and Staphylococci spp. (n = 31) were less than or equal to 0.5 mu g/mL. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 76% of Pseudomonas spp. (n = 25) was less than or equal to 2 mu g/mL. Fourteen strains were resistant to concentrations greater than or equal to 128 mu g/mL. The elimination half-lives (t(1/2) elim beta) (mean +/- SEM) of 10 mg/kg enrofloxacin in eight houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata) were 6.80 +/- 0.79, 6.39 +/- 1.49 and 5.63 +/- 0.54 h after oral (p.o.), intramuscular (i.m.) and intravenous (i.v.) administration, respectively. Enrofloxacin was rapidly absorbed from the bustard gastro-intestinal tract and maximum plasma concentrations of 1.84 +/- 0.16 mu g/mL were achieved after 0.66 +/- 0.05 h. Maximum plasma concentration after i.m. administration of 10 mg/kg was 2.75 +/- 0.11 mu g/mL at 1.72 +/- 0.19 h. Maximum plasma concentration after i.m, administration of 15 mg/kg in two birds was 4.86 mu g/mL. Bioavailability was 97.3 +/- 13.7% and 62.7 +/- 11.1% after i.m. and oral administration, respectively. Plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin greater than or equal to 0.5 mu g/mL were maintained for at least 12 h for all routes at 10 mg/kg and for 24 h after i.m. administration at 15 mg/kg. Plasma enrofloxacin concentrations were monitored during the first 3 days of treatment in five houbara bustards and kori bustards (Ardeotis kori) with bacterial infections receiving a single daily i.m. injection of 10 mg/kg for 3 days. The mean plasma enrofloxacin concentrations in the clinical cases at: 27 and 51 h (3.69 and 3.86 mu g/mL) and at 48 h (0.70 mu g/mL) were significantly higher compared with the 3 h and 24 h time intervals from clinically normal birds. The maximum plasma concentration (C-max)/MIC ratio was ranked i.v. (10/mg/kg) > i.m. (15 mg/kg) > i.m. (10 mg/kg) > oral (10 mg/kg), but it was only higher than 8:1 for i.v and i.m. administrations of enrofloxacin at 10 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg, respectively, against a low MIC (0.5 mu g/mL). A dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg repeated every 12 h, or 15 mg/kg repeated every 24 h, would be expected to give blood concentrations above 0.5 mu g/mL and hence provide therapeutic response in the bustard against a wide range of bacterial infections.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Divisions: Faculties > Science Technology and Medical Studies > Kent Institute of Medicine and Health Sciences (KIMHS)
Depositing User: I. Ghose
Date Deposited: 05 Apr 2009 14:54
Last Modified: 17 Jun 2014 08:34
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