Evolution of the chicken Toll-like receptor gene family: a story of gene gain and gene loss

Temperley, Nicholas D. and Berlin, Sofia and Paton, Ian R. and Griffin, Darren K. and Burt, David W. (2008) Evolution of the chicken Toll-like receptor gene family: a story of gene gain and gene loss. BMC Genomics, 9 (62). p. 168. ISSN 1471-2164 . (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)

The full text of this publication is not available from this repository. (Contact us about this Publication)
Official URL


BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) perform a vital role in disease resistance through their recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Recent advances in genomics allow comparison of TLR genes within and between many species. This study takes advantage of the recently sequenced chicken genome to determine the complete chicken TLR repertoire and place it in context of vertebrate genomic evolution. RESULTS: The chicken TLR repertoire consists of ten genes. Phylogenetic analyses show that six of these genes have orthologs in mammals and fish, while one is only shared by fish and three appear to be unique to birds. Furthermore the phylogeny shows that TLR1-like genes arose independently in fish, birds and mammals from an ancestral gene also shared by TLR6 and TLR10. All other TLRs were already present prior to the divergence of major vertebrate lineages 550 Mya (million years ago) and have since been lost in certain lineages. Phylogenetic analysis shows the absence of TLRs 8 and 9 in chicken to be the result of gene loss. The notable exception to the tendency of gene loss in TLR evolution is found in chicken TLRs 1 and 2, each of which underwent gene duplication about 147 and 65 Mya, respectively. CONCLUSION: Comparative phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate TLR genes provides insight into their patterns and processes of gene evolution, with examples of both gene gain and gene loss. In addition, these comparisons clarify the nomenclature of TLR genes in vertebrates.

Item Type: Article
Additional information: 1471-2164-9-62 1471-2164
Uncontrolled keywords: Animals Avian Proteins Chickens Contig Mapping Evolution, Molecular Humans Mice Multigene Family Phylogeny Protein Structure, Tertiary Rats Sensitivity and Specificity Sequence Homology, Amino Acid Terminology as Topic Toll-Like Receptors
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science
Divisions: Faculties > Science Technology and Medical Studies > School of Biosciences > Cell & Developmental Biology Group
Depositing User: Darren Griffin
Date Deposited: 15 Apr 2009 14:48
Last Modified: 21 May 2014 12:49
Resource URI: https://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/12501 (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
  • Depositors only (login required):