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The enhancement effect of surfactants on the penetration of lorazepam through rat skin

Nokhodchi, Ali, Shokri, Javad, Dashbolaghi, A., Hassan-Zadeh, Davood, Ghafourian, Taravat, Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad (2003) The enhancement effect of surfactants on the penetration of lorazepam through rat skin. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 250 (2). pp. 359-369. ISSN 0378-5173. (doi:10.1016/S0378-5173(02)00554-9) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided) (KAR id:10755)

The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided.
Official URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-5173(02)00554-9

Abstract

Lorazepam is an anxiolytic, antidepressant agent, having suitable feature for transdermal delivery. The percutaneous

permeation of lorazepam was investigated in rat skin after application of a water:propylene glycol (50:50%v/v). The

enhancing effects of various surfactants (sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB),

benzalkonium chloride or Tween 80) with different concentrations on the permeation of lorazepam were evaluated

using Franz diffusion cells fitted with rat skins. Flux, Kp, lag time and enhancement ratios (ERs) of lorazepam were

measured over 24 h and compared with control sample. Furthermore, lorazepam solubility in presence of surfactants

was determined. The in vitro permeation experiments with rat skin revealed that the surfactant enhancers varied in their

ability to enhance the flux of lorazepam. The permeation profile of lorazepam in presence of the cationic surfactant,

CTAB, reveals that an increase in the concentration of CTAB results in an increase in the flux of lorazepam in

comparison with the control. But an increase in concentration of CTAB or benzalkounium chloride from 0.5 to 1% w/w

or from 1 to 2.5% w/w resulted in a reduction in ER, respectively. Benzalkonium chloride which possessed the highest

lipophilicity (log P/1.9) among cationic surfactants provided the greatest enhancement for lorazepam flux (7.66-fold

over control) at 1% w/w of the surfactant. CTAB (log PB/1) and sodium lauryl sulphate at a concentration of 5% w/w

(the highest concentration) exhibited the greatest increase in flux of lorazepam compared with control (9.82 and 11.30-

fold, respectively, over control). This is attributed to the damaging effect of the cationic and anionic surfactants on the

skin at higher concentration. The results also showed that the highest ER was obtained in presence of 1% w/w

surfactant with the exception of SLS and CTAB. The increase in flux at low enhancer concentrations is normally

attributed to the ability of the surfactant molecules to penetrate the skin and increase its permeability. Reduction in the

rate of transport of the drug present in enhancer systems beyond 1% w/w is attributed to the ability of the surfactant

molecules to form micelles and is normally observed only if interaction between micelle and the drug occurs.

# 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1016/S0378-5173(02)00554-9
Subjects: Q Science
Q Science > QD Chemistry
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Natural Sciences > Medway School of Pharmacy
Depositing User: Taravat Ghafourian
Date Deposited: 10 Sep 2008 13:31 UTC
Last Modified: 16 Nov 2021 09:49 UTC
Resource URI: https://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/10755 (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
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