Skip to main content
Kent Academic Repository

Settler/Invader Identity and Belonging in Aotearoa New Zealand: Critiquing “Tāngata Tiriti” and Moving Toward the Collective Future

Simon, Hemopereki (2023) Settler/Invader Identity and Belonging in Aotearoa New Zealand: Critiquing “Tāngata Tiriti” and Moving Toward the Collective Future. Ethnic Studies Review, 46 (3). pp. 95-127. ISSN 1555-1881​. (doi:10.1525/esr.2023.46.3.95) (Access to this publication is currently restricted. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided) (KAR id:104776)

PDF Publisher pdf
Language: English

Restricted to Repository staff only until 31 December 2033.
Contact us about this Publication
[thumbnail of ESR4603_04_Simon.pdf]
Official URL:


This Kaupapa Māori writing inquiry explores “Tāngata Tiriti” (People of the Treaty) as a settler/invader identity term in Aotearoa New Zealand. Derived from the failed policy platform of “biculturalism” and “Indigenous inclusion,” Tāngata Tiriti is a byproduct of neoliberalism and settler/invader colonialism that fails to provide for Indigenous inclusion, mana motuhake (Indigenous sovereignty) and tino rangatiratanga (self-determination). This article argues that Tāngata Tiriti should be abandoned due to the 2014 paradigm shift surrounding Te Tiriti o Waitangi (Te Tiriti) and mana motuhake from the Te Paparahi o Te Raki report and the author’s subsequent research on non-signatory hapu and iwi. Pākehā settler/invader perspectives on Tāngata Tiriti are compared with Ta¯ngata Moana and Asian scholarly understandings. The author advocates adopting Ta¯ngata Moana thinking around letting Ma¯ori as mana whenua lead “wayfinding” and “meaning-making” to define allyship and promote a “collective future” together based on Ma¯ori constitutional values that are generally universal throughout Pacific cultures. Instead of settler/invader identity constructs and the doctrine of the nation as a White possession, movement toward a collective future must begin from a place of sovereign relationality. The pedagogy of teaching Te Tiritimust change, the ill-conceived Ta¯ngata Tiriti identitymust be abandoned, and “New Zealand” as a settler/invader colonial enterprise must end. Our future must be post-settler/invader colonial and post-Tiriti and must recognize unceded mana motuhake or sovereignty.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1525/esr.2023.46.3.95
Uncontrolled keywords: Biculturalism, Settler identity, Tāngata tiriti, Treaty of Waitangi, Settler colonialism, White possessive, Relationality, Mana motuhake
Subjects: D History General and Old World > DU Oceania (South Seas)
H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
H Social Sciences > HM Sociology
H Social Sciences > HN Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform
H Social Sciences > HT Communities. Classes. Races
J Political Science > JA Political science (General)
J Political Science > JQ Political institutions and public administrations (Asia, Africa, Australia, Pacific Area, etc.)
J Political Science > JV Colonies and colonization. Emigration and immigration. International migration
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Arts and Humanities > School of English
Funders: University of Kent (
Depositing User: Hemopereki Simon
Date Deposited: 28 Jan 2024 08:20 UTC
Last Modified: 29 Jan 2024 16:30 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

University of Kent Author Information

  • Depositors only (login required):

Total unique views for this document in KAR since July 2020. For more details click on the image.