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Gender differences in the association between cardiovascular diseases and major depressive disorder among older adults in India

Muhammad, T., Pai, Manacy, Ansari, Salmaan (2023) Gender differences in the association between cardiovascular diseases and major depressive disorder among older adults in India. Dialogues in Health, . Article Number 100107. (doi:10.1016/j.dialog.2023.100107) (KAR id:104669)


Background: Despite the global disease burden associated with the co-occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and depression, depression remains underdiagnosed and undertreated in the CVD population, especially among older adults in India. As such, this study examines (1) the association between single and multiple CVDs and major depres- sive disorder among older Indians; (2) whether this association is mediated by older adults' self-rated health and func- tional limitations; and (3) whether these associations vary for older men and women.

Methods: Data come from the 2017–18 wave 1 of the Longitudinal Ageing Study in India. Multivariable logistic regres- sion is used to explore the association between CVDs and major depressive disorder among older men and women. The Karlson–Holm–Breen (KHB) method is used to examine the mediation effects of self-rated health and functional diffi- culties in the observed associations.

Results: Overall, 5.08% of the older adults had multiple CVDs. Older women (9.71%) had a higher prevalence of major depressive disorder compared to men (7.50%). Multiple CVDs were associated with greater odds of major depressive disorder after adjusting the potential covariates (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.00). Older men with multiple CVDs had a greater risk of major depressive disorder (AOR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.05–2.57) relative to women with CVDs (AOR: 1.39; 95% CI: 0.93–2.08). The association between multiple CVDs and depression was mediated by self-rated health (34.03% for men vs. 34.55% for women), ADL difficulty (22.25% vs. 15.42%), and IADL difficulty (22.90% vs. 19.10%).

Conclusions: One in five older Indians with multiple CVDs reports major depressive disorder, which is three times more common than the prevalence of depressive disorder in older adults without CVDs. This association is attenuated by self-rated health and functional limitations. Moreover, these associations are more pronounced in older men relative to older women. These findings depart from prior inferences that men with CVDs are less psychologically distressed than their female counterparts. Moreover, the findings underscore the importance of gender-specific approaches to in- terventions and therapeutics for CVD-related mental health.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1016/j.dialog.2023.100107
Uncontrolled keywords: cardiovascular disease; depression; gender, older adults; LASI
Subjects: R Medicine
Divisions: Divisions > Division for the Study of Law, Society and Social Justice > School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research > Centre for Health Services Studies
Funders: University of Kent (
Depositing User: Salmaan Ansari
Date Deposited: 18 Jan 2024 15:58 UTC
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2024 11:21 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

University of Kent Author Information

Ansari, Salmaan.

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