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Hallmarks of the tumour microenvironment of gliomas and Its interaction with emerging immunotherapy modalities

Linares, Christian A., Varghese, Anjana, Ghose, Aruni, Shinde, Sayali D., Adeleke, Sola, Sanchez, Elisabet, Sheriff, Matin, Chargari, Cyrus, Rassy, Elie, Boussios, Stergios and others. (2023) Hallmarks of the tumour microenvironment of gliomas and Its interaction with emerging immunotherapy modalities. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 24 (17). Article Number 13215. ISSN 1661-6596. E-ISSN 1422-0067. (doi:10.3390/ijms241713215) (KAR id:102725)


Gliomas are aggressive, primary central nervous system tumours arising from glial cells. Glioblastomas are the most malignant. They are known for their poor prognosis or median overall survival. The current standard of care is overwhelmed by the heterogeneous, immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment promoting immune evasion and tumour proliferation. The advent of immunotherapy with its various modalities—immune checkpoint inhibitors, cancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses and chimeric antigen receptor T cells and NK cells—has shown promise. Clinical trials incorporating combination immunotherapies have overcome the microenvironment resistance and yielded promising survival and prognostic benefits. Rolling these new therapies out in the real-world scenario in a low-cost, high-throughput manner is the unmet need of the hour. These will have practice-changing implications to the glioma treatment landscape. Here, we review the immunobiological hallmarks of the TME of gliomas, how the TME evades immunotherapies and the work that is being conducted to overcome this interplay.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.3390/ijms241713215
Uncontrolled keywords: oncolytic virotherapy; gliomas; immune checkpoint inhibitors; therapeutic cancer vaccines; chimeric antigen receptors; immunotherapy; tumour microenvironment
Subjects: R Medicine
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Natural Sciences > Kent and Medway Medical School
Funders: University of Kent (
SWORD Depositor: JISC Publications Router
Depositing User: JISC Publications Router
Date Deposited: 13 Oct 2023 14:45 UTC
Last Modified: 11 Jan 2024 03:25 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

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