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Variants of gender bias and sexual-orientation discrimination in career development

Litsardopoulos, Nicholas, Saridakis, George, Clark, Andrew (2023) Variants of gender bias and sexual-orientation discrimination in career development. The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy, 23 (4). pp. 1175-1185. E-ISSN 1935-1682. (doi:10.1515/bejeap-2023-0026) (KAR id:102690)


We use a nationally-representative dataset that includes a large sample of sexual-orientation minorities to investigate gender bias and sexual-orientation discrimination in career progression. Our results are consistent with persistent gender bias findings and non-heterosexual identity-based employment discrimination. Our findings are consistent with previous work noting that protective legislation for gay and lesbian sexual identities have increased the cost of discrimination and contribute to the improved socioeconomic status of a substantial number of people in these minority groups. However, these gains have not been shared with other minority groups in the LGB+ community, which still have some of the lowest probabilities of holding managerial jobs, and higher probabilities of appearing in lower socioeconomic classes.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1515/bejeap-2023-0026
Additional information: AAM requested > T2309-3635. MW 6.9.23 Pubrouter update. Emailed author on T2310-21835 27/10/2023 EH
Uncontrolled keywords: sexual orientation; discrimination; socioeconomic status; LGB+
Subjects: H Social Sciences
Divisions: Divisions > Kent Business School - Division > Department of Marketing, Entrepreneurship and International Business
Funders: University of Kent (
Depositing User: George Saridakis
Date Deposited: 05 Sep 2023 11:44 UTC
Last Modified: 27 Feb 2024 22:20 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

University of Kent Author Information

Litsardopoulos, Nicholas.

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Saridakis, George.

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